Editorial Ethical standards, truths, and lies

May 10, 2016 Comments Off on Editorial Ethical standards, truths, and lies

Editorial   Ethical standards, truths, and lies
Bethany L. Brand Ph & Linda McEwen MA
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation Volume 17, Issue 3, 2016 pages 259-266
DOI: 10.1080/15299732.2016.1114357

This is an editorial about recent social and professional ethical developments that may signal attempts to arrive at truth about critical aspects of trauma after decades of lies and cover-ups. The first development came with the release of the Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015a), an investigation of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) complicity in abusive, traumatizing interrogations of political detainees, with one particular reference of note to this discussion. Another development was the publication of The Witch-Hunt Narrative by Ross Cheit (2014), which challenges widely held misconceptions about victims of child abuse and their credibility perpetuated since the preschool child abuse trials of the 1980s.

The ethical standards for International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD) members are derived from the ethical guidelines of national and professional groups (ISSTD, 2015). For psychologists who are members of the ISSTD, the APA provides ethical principles (APA, 2010), including general principles and ethical standards. Not only did some powerful people within the APA fail to follow its principles and standards, but, as noted in the Hoffman Report, it was the APA ethics director who was among those complicit in this failure.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15299732.2016.1114357

Article PDF
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/15299732.2016.1114357

Military, CIA Required Docs to Aid Torture, Rape Laws Offer Little Protection

November 9, 2013 Comments Off on Military, CIA Required Docs to Aid Torture, Rape Laws Offer Little Protection

Military, CIA Required Docs to Aid Torture
Nov 8, 2013  By Chris Kaiser

Since Sept. 11, 2001, military and intelligence health professionals have participated in the abuse and torture of suspected terrorists held in prisons outside the U.S., a comprehensive new report said.

And they did so because the Department of Defense (DoD) and the CIA “required [them] to act contrary to their professional obligations,” according to the report.

Those are two of eight findings included in the 200-page report, “Ethics Abandoned: Medical Professionalism and Detainee Abuse in the War on Terror.” The report is based on 2 years of review of records in the public domain by the 19-member Task Force on Preserving Medical Professionalism in National Security Detention Centers….
http://www.medpagetoday.com/PublicHealthPolicy/Ethics/42810

Medical, Military, and Ethics Experts Say Health Professionals Designed and Participated in Cruel, Inhumane, and Degrading Treatment and Torture of Detainees; Seek Policies To Assure Conformance With Ethical Principles

New York, NY — An independent panel of military, ethics, medical, public health, and legal experts today charged that U.S. military and intelligence agencies directed doctors and psychologists working in U.S. military detention centers to violate standard ethical principles and medical standards to avoid infliction of harm. The Task Force on Preserving Medical Professionalism in National Security Detention Centers (see attached) concludes that since September 11, 2001, the Department of Defense (DoD) and CIA improperly demanded that U.S. military and intelligence agency health professionals collaborate in intelligence gathering and security practices in a way that inflicted severe harm on detainees in U.S. custody.

These practices included “designing, participating in, and enabling torture and cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment” of detainees, according to the report. Although the DoD has taken steps to address some of these practices in recent years, including instituting a committee to review medical ethics concerns at Guantanamo Bay Prison, the Task Force says the changed roles for health professionals and anemic ethical standards adopted within the military remain in place….
http://www.imapny.org/medicine_as_a_profession/interrogationtorture-and-dual-loyalty

Ethics Abandoned: Medical Professionalism and Detainee Abuse in the “War on Terror” A task force report funded
by IMAP/OSF November 2013  Institute on Medicine As A Profession  Columbia University, College of Physicians and surgeons 630 West 168th street P&S Box 11, New York, NY 10032

The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United states resulted in U.S. government- approved harsh treatment and torture of detainees suspected of having information about terrorism.1 Military and intelligence-agency physicians and other health professionals, particularly psychologists, became involved in the design and administration of that harsh treatment and torture—in clear conflict with established international and national professional principles and laws.2

In 2010, the institute on Medicine as a Profession (IMAP) and the open society Foundations convened the task Force on Preserving Medical Professionalism in national security detention centers (Task Force) to examine what is known about the involvement of health professionals in infliction of torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment of detainees in U.S. custody and how such deviation from professional standards and ethically proper conduct occurred, including actions that were taken by the U.S. department of defense (dod) and the ciA to direct this conduct….

The Task Force has determined that actions taken by the U.S. government immediately following 9/11 included three key elements affecting the role of health professionals in detention centers:

1. The declaration that as part of a “war on terror,” individuals captured and detained in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and elsewhere were “unlawful combatants” who did not qualify as prisoners of war under the Geneva conventions. Additionally, the U.S. department of Justice approved of interrogation methods recognized domestically and internationally as constituting torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment.

2. The DOD and CIA’s development of internal mechanisms to direct the participation of military and intelligence-agency physicians and psychologists in abusive interrogation and breaking of hunger strikes. Although the involvement of health professionals in human rights  violations against detainees progressed differently in the military and the CIA, both facilitated that involvement in similar ways, including undermining health professionals’ allegiances to established principles of professional ethics and conduct through reinterpretation of those principles.

3. The secrecy surrounding detention policies that prevailed until 2004–2005, when leaked documents began to reveal those policies. secrecy allowed the unlawful and unethical interrogation and mistreatment of detainees to proceed unfettered by established ethical principles and standards of conduct as well as societal, professional, and nongovernmental commentary and legal review.
http://www.imapny.org/File%20Library/Documents/IMAP-EthicsTextFinal2.pdf

Rape Laws Offer Little Protection
Nov 8, 2013 By Rita Buckley , Contributing Writer, MedPage Today

Since 2000, the United Nations Security Council has issued nine sexual-violence-related resolutions to seemingly little effect. One in three women worldwide have still been raped or sexually assaulted, and 65 countries report more than 250,000 rapes and attempted rapes to the United Nations each year.

These figures don’t even account for the vast majority of rapes, which go unreported, Akiyode continued. A 2007 government document in England found that between 75% and 95% of rapes will never come to light, and the American Medical Association calls rape the single most under-reported violent crime.

In many nations, rape is rarely reported due to social stigma and cultural norms and traditions, such as ‘honor killings’ of victims, she pointed out. According to the United Nations, 2008 rape figures recorded by police worldwide varied between 0.1 per 100,000 in Egypt to 26.6 per 100,000 in the United States to 91.6 per 100,000 in Lesotho.

In the U.S., one in three American women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetime, Akiyode told MedPage Today, adding that women are 10 times more likely than men to be victims of rape and nine times more likely than non-victims to attempt suicide.

Nor is the situation improving, she said. In Nigeria, only 18% or so of rape victims contact police. Egypt’s interior ministry claim of 20,000 rapes each year (or 0.1 rapes per 100,000 individuals) is belied by conservative estimates of 200,000 annual rapes….
http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/APHA/42803

Survivorship Professional Webinar – Sexual Ethics – March 31, 2012

March 7, 2012 Comments Off on Survivorship Professional Webinar – Sexual Ethics – March 31, 2012

PROFESSIONAL WEBINAR

Now offering ethics requirements as well as CEUs

Not only can we offer you CEUs. (through the California Board of Behavioral Sciences which covers Marriage and Family Therapists (MFT); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSW); Licensed Educational Psychologists (LEP); Licensed Professional Clinical Counselors (LPCC); MFT Interns (IMF); Associate Clinical Social Workers (ASW); and Professional Clinical Counselor Interns (PCCI) in the State of California) you will also be able to use this as an ethics requirement under your licensure.

Upcoming Professional Webinar:

Sexual Ethics

Saturday, March 31, 2012
noon Pacific Time (3 hours)

PRESENTER

 Staci Sprout, LICSW, CSAT, has 16 years of post-graduate experience as a psychotherapist and social worker in clinical practice, community mental health, hospitals, nursing homes, and public health.  For the last five years her practice has focused almost exclusively as an individual, group and couples therapist working with adults in recovery from sexual and related addictions, at revolution psychotherapy.  She completed the HARE Psychopathy training in 2008 and has conducted forensic evaluations for adults accused of sexual crimes.  As a therapy client and addict herself with over 20 years of successful personal recovery, Staci brings a compassionate and direct approach to the complex topic of sexual ethics.  She can be reached via http://www.stacisprout.com.

WEBINAR SUMMARY

 This webinar is designed to raise awareness about key ethical sexual issues facing helping professionals today.  Offered are practical tools to enhance treatment of sexual issues, an ethical decision-making model that examines real challenges, guidance on when to refer, consideration of ethnic and cultural issues, information about less obvious yet important sexual boundary issues in the helping relationship, and a case study presentation of sexual challenges in a clinical setting transforming and resolving over time.

  • ETHICAL STATEMENT:  Receive a sample personal ethics statement, as a starting point for your practice or organization, that addresses sexual issues
  • ETHICAL CHOICES:  Learn a working model of ethical decision-making called “The Five Stars of Ethical Excellence” to assist in deliberation of even the most challenging ethical/liability dilemmas, applied to several real challenges facing clinicians today
  • EMPOWERMENT:  Learn a practical, dynamic tool that includes a vision of sexual health to assists clients in discerning their sexual behavior and values, and then explore them more deeply over time.  This tool is called “The Four Pillars of Sexual Integrity”
  • SCOPE OF PRACTICE ISSUES:  Receive clear guidance on when to refer to sexual specialists, including Certified Sex Therapists (CST), LGBTQ Specialists, and Certified Sexual Addictions Therapists (CSAT), and/or Sex Offender Treatment Providers (SOTP).

 

REGISTRATION

Registration closes the Thursday evening before the webinar

 

To reserve a space in the webinar, e-mail Shamai at shamai@survivorship.org  and give her this information:

1. Your name

2. The webinar you wish to attend (Sexual Ethics)

3. Amount and method of payment  (check, PayPal, money order)

4. Your preferred e-mail address (so we can send you instructions)

5. Whether you require CEU’s and for which discipline/licence number

You will receive a confirmation email immediately and an invitation link and instructions after the registration closes

COST

Professional Webinars are $50 and include CEUs upon request.

The PayPal button is near the bottom of the page at http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html

If you wish to pay by check please send it to: Survivorship, Family Justice Center, 470 27th Street, Oakland, CA 94612.

Complete details on all our webinars are at http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html

Survivorship Ritual Abuse Professional Webinars

November 27, 2011 Comments Off on Survivorship Ritual Abuse Professional Webinars

Survivorship is pleased to announce a new webinar series, in 2 parts, for professionals, for which you can request CEUs. (through the California Board of Behavioral Sciences which covers Marriage and Family Therapists (MFT); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSW); Licensed Educational Psychologists (LEP); Licensed Professional Clinical Counselors (LPCC); MFT Interns (IMF); Associate Clinical Social Workers (ASW); and Professional Clinical Counselor Interns (PCCI) in the State of California).

The dates are January 28th and March 31st, 2012
from noon to 3:00 PM pacific time.

All  speakers in our professional series  are trained professionals in the field with many years of experience both in the practical aspect of working with survivors of Ritual Abuse and Mind Control as well as having been speakers at professional conferences in the past.

Upcoming Professional Webinar:

Saturday, January 28 and March 31, 2012
noon Pacific Time (3 hours)
Sexual Ethics 101 + 102

(You can register for one or both. One is not exclusive of the other)

Presenter:
Staci Sprout, LICSW, CSAT, has 16 years of post-graduate experience as a psychotherapist and social worker in clinical practice, community mental health, hospitals, nursing homes, and public health.  For the last five years her practice has focused almost exclusively as an individual, group and couples therapist working with adults in recovery from sexual and related addictions.  She completed the HARE Psychopathy training in 2008 and has conducted forensic evaluations for adults accused of sexual crimes.  As a therapy client and addict herself with over 20 years of successful personal recovery, Staci brings a compassionate and direct approach to the complex topic of sexual ethics.

Sexual Ethics Series

This 2 part series is designed to raise awareness about key ethical sexual issues facing helping professionals today.  I offer practical tools to enhance your treatment of sexual issues, an ethical decision-making model, guidance on when to refer, consideration of ethnic and cultural issues, information about less obvious yet important sexual boundary issues in the helping relationship, and a case study presentation of sexual challenges in a clinical setting transforming and resolving over time.  Please note:  Sexual Ethics 102 builds on the information shared in Sexual Ethics 101, but can be taken without having already completed this class.

Sexual Ethics 101

CLIENT EMPOWERMENT:  Learn a practical, dynamic tool that includes a vision of sexual health to assists clients in discerning their sexual behavior and values, and then explore them more deeply over time.  This tool is called “The Four Pillars of Sexual Integrity”

ETHICAL CHOICES:  Learn a working model of ethical decision-making called “The Five Stars of Ethical Excellence” to assist in deliberation of even the most challenging ethical dilemmas

SCOPE OF PRACTICE ISSUES:  Receive clear guidance on when to refer to sexual specialists, including Certified Sex Therapists (CST), LGBTQ Specialists, and Certified Sexual Addictions Therapists (CSAT), and/or Sex Offender Treatment Providers (SOTP).

ETHICAL STATEMENT:  Receive a sample personal ethics statement, as a starting point for your practice or organization, that addresses sexual issues

Sexual Ethics 102:

CROSS ETHNIC/CROSS CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS:  As related to perspectives on love and sexual health

TALKING IN DETAILS:  Participate in an experiential exercise to further discern your own sexual values, sexual self-care, and support

SEXUAL BOUNDARIES FOR HELPING PROFESSIONALS:  How to maintain, what to say, related to keeping the relationship safe and non-sexual

TRAUMATIC REENACTMENTS:  Holding curiosity about what emerges over time with  sexual challenges in a safe therapy setting a case study

Upcoming Webinar (for survivors and professionals):
Saturday, December 17, 2011
noon Pacific Time (2 hours)
Memory & Survivors

Presenter: Alikina
Most survivors have questions about their memory processes at some time: ‘is it true, did it happen?’ or ‘why can’t I remember?’, or even ‘why do I keep having intrusive memories?’  As we heal, we also become aware of times when our memories seem different than how we’ve been lead to believe ‘normal’ memory works.  We feel like we forget too much, or we have nearly perfect memories.  Often questions about memories of abuse are addressed in therapy, groups, books, etc; but questions about the everyday workings of memory, and how abuse may be affecting our brain function, stay unanswered.  This webinar will primarily focus on what current psychological science knows about basic memory processes, as well as issues unique to the survivor community, learning styles and how they affect memory, tricks to assist remembering, and plenty of Q & A time.

Alikina is a survivor of severe abuse and a current grad-school student halfway through her Master’s Degree in Mental Health Counseling.  She has presented articles and webinars for Survivorship in the past.  She has worked with abuse survivors through community support organizations and been in therapy as both the client and the therapist, and plans to work with abuse and trauma survivors as her career path.

REGISTRATION
Registration closes the Thursday evening before the webinar

To reserve a space in the webinar, e-mail Shamai at shamai@survivorship.org   and give her this information:

1. Your name
2. The webinar you wish to attend
3. Amount and method of payment  (check, PayPal, money order)
4. Your preferred e-mail address (so we can send you instructions)
5. The name you will be using for the webinar. (This does not have to be your real name or your message board screen name.)

You will receive a confirmation email immediately and an invitation link and instructions after the registration closes

COST

Professional Webinars are $50 and include CEUs upon request.
All other webinars are on a sliding scale from $50.00 to full scholarship.
(While we offer full scholarships for webinars, it would be great if you would be willing to pay anything, even $5 rather than expect a full scholarship. While we understand that money can be difficult to find, please try to pay what you can to help cover the cost of the webinar provider).

The PayPal button is near the bottom of the page at http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html

If you wish to pay by check please send it to: Survivorship, Family Justice Center, 470 27th Street, Oakland, CA 94612.

PAST WEBINARS

Survivorship members may listen to past webinars (not professional) in the members’ section.
For information on joining Survivorship, go to http://www.survivorship.org/about/membership.html

Complete details on all our webinars are at http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html

If you have any further questions, please feel free to contact Shamai@survivorship.org

Elizabeth Loftus – critiques of her research

April 23, 2011 Comments Off on Elizabeth Loftus – critiques of her research

The accuracy of Elizabeth Loftus’ research and its ethics have been critiqued by several people over the last two decades.  Below is a brief synopsis of some of this research.

“Lost in a Shopping Mall” A Breach of Professional Ethics
Lynn S. Crook  ETHICS & BEHAVIOR, vol. 9, #1, pp. 39-50
The “lost in a shopping mall” study has been cited to support claims that psychotherapists can implant memories of false autobiographical information of childhood trauma in their patients. The mall study originated in 1991 as 5 pilot experiments involving 3 children and 2 adult participants. The University of Washington Human Subjects Committee granted approval for the mall study on August 10, 1992. The preliminary results with the 5 pilot subjects were announced 4 days later. An analysis of the mall study shows that beyond the external misrepresentations, internal scientific methodological errors cast doubt on the validity of the claims that have been attributed to the mall study within scholarly and legal arenas. The minimal involvement or, in some cases, negative impact of collegial consultation, academic supervision, and peer review throughout the evolution of the mall study are reviewed.
http://users.owt.com/crook/memory/

Elizabeth Loftus (from jimhopper.com)
Unfortunately, thus far reporters and journalists have almost completely failed to critically evaluate her claims. Nor have they addressed three crucial facts about her work:

1) Loftus herself conducted and published a study in which nearly one in five women who reported childhood sexual abuse also reported completely forgetting the abuse for some period of time and recovering the memory of it later.
….

3) Loftus is aware that those who study traumatic memory have for several years, based on a great deal of research and clinical experience, used the construct of dissociation to account for the majority of recovered memories. However, she continues to focus on and attack “repression” and “repressed memories,” which has the effect of confusing and misleading many people.
http://www.jimhopper.com/memory/#el

Consider the Evidence for Elizabeth Loftus’
Scholarship and Accuracy. “Remembering Dangerously” & Hoult v. Hoult: The Myth of Repressed Memory that Elizabeth Loftus Created
by Jennifer Hoult, Esq.
http://www.rememberingdangerously.com/

Elizabeth Loftus herself has published studies showing evidence of recovered memory. The 4 January 1996 issue of Accuracy About Abuse notes: Elizabeth Loftus, high profile FMSF advocate, published a paper with colleagues on Remembering and Repressing in 1994. In a study of 105 women outpatients in a substance abuse clinic 54 % reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. 81% remembered all or part of the abuse. 19% reported they forgot the abuse for a period of time and later the memory returned. Women who remembered the abuse their whole lives reported a clearer memory, with a more detailed picture. Women who remembered the abuse their whole lives did not differ from others in terms of the violence of the abuse or whether the violence was incestuous. [Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18 (1994) 67-84.]

Loftus has also discussed “motivated forgetting”, and has presented the documented study of a college professor who became unable to remember a series of traumas, but after some time was able to recover those memories. Loftus remarked “after such an enormously stressful experience, many individuals wish to forget… And often their wish is granted.” (Loftus, 1980/1988, p. 73)” http://web.archive.org/web/20030608221633/http://www.feminista.com/v1n9/false-memory.html

“The hypothesis that false memories can easily be implanted in psychotherapy (Lindsay & Read, 1994; Loftus 1993; Loftus & Ketcham, 1994; Ofshe and Watters, 1993, 1994; Yapko, 1994a) seriously overstates the available data. Since no studies have been conducted on suggested effects in psychotherapy per se, the idea of iatrogenic suggestion of false memories remains an untested hypothesis. (Memory, Trauma Treatment, And the Law Brown, Scheflin and Hammond (D. Corydon) 1998, W. W. Norton 0-393-70254-5)

Memory, Abuse, and Science: Questioning Claims About the False Memory Syndrome Epidemic Pope, K. (1996)
American Psychologist 51: 957. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.51.9.957

Does the trauma specified in the lost-in-the-mall experiment seem comparable to the trauma forming the basis of false memory syndrome? Loftus (1993) described the implanted traumatic event in the shopping-mall experiment as follows: “Chris was convinced by his older brother Jim, that he had been lost in a shopping mall when he was five years old” (p. 532). Does this seem, for example, a reasonable analogy for a five-year-old girl being repeatedly raped by her father? Pezdek (1995; see also Pezdek, Finger, & Hodge, 1996) has suggested that this may not be the case. In attempting to arrive at a more analogous situation-that of a suggested false memory of a rectal enema-her experimental attempts at implantation of a suggestion had a 0% success rate.

What is the impact of the potentially confounding variables in claiming the shopping-mall experiment to be a convincing analogue of therapy (Loftus, 1993; Loftus & Ketcham, 1994)? Is it possible that the findings are an artifact of this particular design, for example, that the older family member claims to have been present when the event occurred and to have witnessed it, a claim the therapist can never make? To date, replications and extensions of this study have tended to use a similar methodology; that is, either the older family member makes the suggestions in his or her role as the experimenter’s confederate, or the experimenter presents the suggestion as being the report of an older family member, thus creating a surrogate confederate.

Has this line of research assumed that verbal reports provided to researchers are the equivalent of actual memories? Spanos (1994) suggested that changes in report in suggestibility research may represent compliance with social demand conditions of the research design rather than actual changes in what is recalled. In what ways were the measures to demonstrate actual changes or creations of memory representations validated and confounding variables (e.g., demand characteristics) excluded? Given that being lost while out shopping is apparently a common childhood experience, how is the determination made that the lost-in-the-mall memory is not substantially correct? What supports the claim that “Chris had remembered a traumatic episode that never occurred” (Garry & Loftus, 1994, p. 83). That is, is there any possibility that Chris’s family had forgotten an actual event of this type?

If the experiment is assumed for heuristic reasons to demonstrate that an older family member can extensively rewrite a younger relative’s memory in regard to a trauma at which the older relative was present, why have false memory syndrome proponents presented this research as applying to the dynamics of therapy (e.g., Loftus, 1993; Loftus & Ketcham, 1994) but not to the dynamics of families, particularly those in which parents or other relatives may be exerting pressure on an adult to retract reports of delayed recall? Is it possible that older family members can rewrite younger relatives’ memories in regard to traumatic events at which they were present? Might this occur in the context of sexual abuse when the repeated suggestion is made by a perpetrator that “nothing happened” and that any subsequent awareness of the abuse constitutes a false memory?
http://www.kspope.com/memory/memory.php

Quotes: Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D.
http://bit.ly/hxkUbT

A Brief History of the False Memory Research of Elizabeth Loftus
“The lost- in- a-shopping-mall study (Loftus and Pickrell, 1995) provided  initial   scientific support for the claim that child sexual abuse accusations are false memories planted by therapists.  However, the mall study researchers faced a problem early on—the participants could tell the difference between the true and false memories.”  http://bit.ly/dH9uST

The Alleged Ethical Violations of Elizabeth Loftus in the Case of Jane Doe “In conclusion, I believe Loftus made several ethical breaches during her research and when publishing her study. The right to freedom of speech and academic debate does not allow for the kind of ethical breaches that were made. The violating of Jane Doe’s confidentiality without her written consent around such a sensitive issue appears to have been unnecessary and inappropriate.”
http://bit.ly/6bbAW6

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