Dissociative identity disorder exists and is the result of childhood trauma           

November 21, 2019 § Leave a comment

– Dissociative identity disorder exists and is the result of childhood trauma             

– Dispelling Myths About Dissociative Identity Disorder Treatment: An Empirically Based Approach

– Evaluation of the Evidence for the Trauma and Fantasy Models of Dissociation

Dissociative identity disorder exists and is the result of childhood trauma

In the movies, people with multiple personality disorder are nearly always psychopaths. But according to these contributing academics, most people who have dissociative identity disorder, as the condition is now known, aren’t psychopaths – they’re victims of society’s most heinous crimes. 08/11/2019
By Dr Michael Slater, Dr Warick Middleton, Prof. Martin Dorahy

….But research hasn’t found people with the disorder are more prone to “false memories” than others. And brain imaging studies show significant differences in brain activity between people with dissociative identity disorder and other groups, including those who have been trained to mimic the disorder.

….Dissociative identity disorder comes about when a child’s psychological development is disrupted by early repetitive trauma that prevents the normal processes of consolidating a core sense of identity. Reports of childhood trauma in people with dissociative identity disorder (that have been substantiated) include burning, mutilation and exploitation. Sexual abuse is also routinely reported, alongside emotional abuse and neglect.

In response to overwhelming trauma, the child develops multiple, often conflicting, states or identities. These mirror the radical contradictions in their early attachments and social and family environments – for instance, a parent who swings unpredictably between aggression and care.

According to the DSM-5, the major characteristic of dissociative identity disorder is a disruption of identity, in which a person experiences two or more distinct personality states

….But the causal relationship between trauma and dissociation (alterations of identity and memory) has been repeatedly shown in a range of studies using different methodologies across cultures.

….a contemporary survey of clinical practice among specialists of dissociative identity found those treating the disorder weren’t focused on retrieving memories at any phase of the treatment.

A recent literature analysis concluded that criticisms of dissociative identity disorder treatment are based on inaccurate assumptions about clinical practice, misunderstandings of symptoms, and an over-reliance on anecdotes and unfounded claims.

https://www.sbs.com.au/news/insight/dissociative-identity-disorder-exists-and-is-the-result-of-childhood-trauma

Dispelling Myths About Dissociative Identity Disorder Treatment: An Empirically Based Approach

Article· Literature Review in Psychiatry Interpersonal & Biological Processes 77(2):169-89 · June 2014

DOI: 10.1521/psyc.2014.77.2.169 · Source: PubMed

Bethany L Brand
Towson University
Richard J Loewenstein
Independent Researcher
David Spiegel
Stanford University

Abstract
Objective: Some claim that treatment for dissociative identity disorder (DID) is harmful. Others maintain that the available data support the view that psychotherapy is helpful.

Method: We review the empirical support for both arguments.

Results: Current evidence supports the conclusion that phasic treatment consistent with expert consensus guidelines is associated with improvements in a wide range of DID patients’ symptoms and functioning, decreased rates of hospitalization, and reduced costs of treatment. Research indicates that poor outcome is associated with treatment that does not specifically involve direct engagement with DID self-states to repair identity fragmentation and to decrease dissociative amnesia.

Conclusions: The evidence demonstrates that carefully staged trauma-focused psychotherapy for DID results in improvement, whereas dissociative symptoms persist when not specifically targeted in treatment. The claims that DID treatment is harmful are based on anecdotal cases, opinion pieces, reports of damage that are not substantiated in the scientific literature, misrepresentations of the data, and misunderstandings about DID treatment and the phenomenology of DID. Given the severe symptomatology and disability associated with DID, iatrogenic harm is far more likely to come from depriving DID patients of treatment that is consistent with expert consensus, treatment guidelines, and current research.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262682220_Dispelling_Myths_About_Dissociative_Identity_Disorder_Treatment_An_Empirically_Based_Approach

Evaluation of the Evidence for the Trauma and Fantasy Models of Dissociation
Psychological Bulletin – American Psychological Association 2012, Vol. 138, No. 3, 550 –5880033-2909/12 DOI: 10.1037/a0027447

The relationship between a reported history of trauma and dissociative symptoms has been explained in 2 conflicting ways. Pathological dissociation has been conceptualized as a response to antecedent traumatic stress and/or severe psychological adversity. Others have proposed that dissociation makes individuals prone to fantasy, thereby engendering confabulated memories of trauma. We examine data related to a series of 8 contrasting predictions based on the trauma model and the fantasy model of dissociation. In keeping with the trauma model, the relationship between trauma and dissociation was consistent and moderate in strength, and remained significant when objective measures of trauma were used. Dissociation was temporally related to trauma and trauma treatment, and was predictive of trauma history when fantasy proneness was controlled. Dissociation was not reliably associated with suggestibility, nor was there evidence for the fantasy model prediction of greater inaccuracy of recovered memory. Instead, dissociation was positively related to a history of trauma memory recovery and negatively related to the more general measures of narrative cohesion. Research also supports the trauma theory of dissociation as a regulatory response to fear or other extreme emotion with measurable biological correlates. We conclude, on the basis of evidence related to these 8 predictions, that there is strong empirical support for the hypothesis that trauma causes dissociation, and that dissociation remains related to trauma history when fantasy proneness is controlled. We find little support fort he hypothesis that the dissociation–trauma relationship is due to fantasy proneness or confabulated memories of trauma
https://www.towson.edu/cla/departments/psychology/facultystaff/dalenbergetalevalevidencefortraumaandfantasymodelspsychbull2012.pdf

 Dissociative Identity Disorder

The causes of dissociative identity disorder are theoretically linked with the interaction of overwhelming stress, traumatic antecedents,[3] insufficient childhood nurturing, and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiences from consciousness.[2] Prolonged child abuse is frequently a factor, with a very high percentage of patients reporting documented abuse[4] often confirmed by objective evidence.[1] The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders states that patients with DID often report having a history of severe physical and sexual abuse. The reports of patients suffering from DID are “often confirmed by objective evidence,” and the DSM notes that the abusers in those situations may be inclined to “deny or distort” these acts.[1] Research has consistently shown that DID is characterized by reports of extensive childhood trauma, usually child abuse.[5][6][7] Dissociation is recognized as a symptomatic presentation in response to psychological trauma, extreme emotional stress, and in association with emotional dysregulation and borderline personality disorder.[8] A study of 12 murderers established the connection between early severe abuse and DID[9]. A recent psychobiological study shows that dissociative identity disorder (DID) sufferers’ “origins of their ailment stem more likely from trauma” than sociogenic or iatrogenic origins[10][11].

https://childabusewiki.org/index.php?title=Dissociative_Identity_Disorder

Alleged child predators caught in undercover April Fools sex sting, Texas man who killed a 12-year-old boy in 1998 after a satanic calling, Common Forms of Misinformation and Tactics of Disinformation about Psychotherapy for Trauma Originating in Ritual Abuse and Mind Control

April 7, 2016 Comments Off on Alleged child predators caught in undercover April Fools sex sting, Texas man who killed a 12-year-old boy in 1998 after a satanic calling, Common Forms of Misinformation and Tactics of Disinformation about Psychotherapy for Trauma Originating in Ritual Abuse and Mind Control

– Alleged child predators caught in undercover April Fools sex sting
– Texas man who killed boy executed
– Common Forms of Misinformation and Tactics of Disinformation about Psychotherapy for Trauma Originating in Ritual Abuse and Mind Control By Ellen Lacter, Ph.D.
– Psychological and legal evidence of the existence of ritual abuse is substantial and rapidly growing
– Scientific Evidence that Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is caused by Childhood Trauma

Alleged child predators caught in undercover April Fools sex sting
Apr 6th 2016

While millions across the country were using social media to harmlessly prank their friends and family last week, police in Florida took to the dark corners of the Internet to uncover and stop alleged would-be child sex offenders.

The undercover child sex sting caught 18 men arranging sexual encounters with children.

Polk County Sheriff Grady Judd released the results of “Operation April’s Fools” on Tuesday.

“These freaks and these deviants are looking for our children every day online,” Judd said at a news conference. “They worked in all different lines of business, and they had one thing in common: they’re child predators.”

Investigators said the men had arranged to have sex with children from 10 to 14-years-old.

Undercover detectives nabbed the men by luring them with fictitious ads or profiles on social media, websites and phone applications, pretending to be either children or their custodians.

Despite prior coverage of past events, multiple men responded to and engaged with the undercover detectives, and officials divulged some of the most shocking details of those alleged encounters….
http://www.aol.com/article/2016/04/06/alleged-child-predators-caught-in-undercover-april-fools-sex-sti/21339298/

describes graphic crimes

Texas man who killed boy, drank his blood executed
Vasquez has appealed his execution
By Holly Yan CNN  04/06 2016

Pablo Vasquez, a Texas man who killed a 12-year-old boy in 1998 and reportedly drank his blood after a satanic calling, was executed Wednesday, the Texas Department of Criminal Justice announced….

Vasquez, 38, had appealed his execution, but a stay was denied and he was put to death at 6:35 p.m.
Vasquez was convicted of killing 12-year-old David Cardenas in Donna, Texas, 18 years ago. Authorities said Vasquez and his cousin met the boy at a party.

On the night of April 18, 1998, “Vasquez struck the victim in the head with a piece of pipe and a shovel,” the Department of Criminal Justice said. “The victim’s body was buried behind a residence. … Vasquez took a ring and a necklace from the victim.”….

Vasquez told police in a videotaped interview that he drank the boy’s blood, according to The Monitor newspaper in South Texas.
“The blood was dripping, and (I) got it all over my face, so I don’t know. I mean, something just told me drink,” Vasquez said, according to a transcript of the statement.

Vasquez said he tried to cut off the boy’s head, according to The Monitor. A detective asked Vasquez why.
“The devil was telling me to take it away from, to keep it, keep it, couldn’t come off,” Vasquez said. “I was just freaking out cause I was hearing that.”….
http://www.mypanhandle.com/news/texas-to-execute-12yearold-boys-killer

Common Forms of Misinformation and Tactics of Disinformation about Psychotherapy for Trauma Originating in Ritual Abuse and Mind Control By Ellen Lacter, Ph.D., December 18, 2012.
from http://endritualabuse.org/activism/misinfo/

This page on my website seeks to expose a number of common forms of misinformation and tactics of disinformation about psychotherapy for trauma originating in ritual abuse and mind control. Disinformation is distinguished from misinformation in that it is intentionally fraudulent.

Misinformation and disinformation about ritual abuse and mind control trauma and psychotherapy to treat such trauma appear in both paper and electronic media, but are particularly abundant on the Internet on websites of individuals and organizations, bookseller reviews, blogs, newsletters, online encyclopedias, social networking sites, and e-group listservs.
http://childabusedata.blogspot.com/2016/02/common-forms-of-misinformation-and.html

Brief Synopsis of the Literature on the Existence of Ritualistic Abuse  By Ellen P. Lacter, Ph.D.
Psychological and legal evidence of the existence of ritual abuse is substantial and rapidly growing.
http://endritualabuse.org/evidence/brief-synopsis-of-the-literature-on-the-existence-of-ritualistic-abuse/

Publications on Ritual Abuse and Mind Control in 2008
from End Ritual Abuse – The Website of Ellen P. Lacter, Ph.D
http://endritualabuse.org/evidence/publications-on-ritual-abuse-and-mind-control-in-2008/

Data on Survivors of Ritual Abuse, Mind Control, and Healing Methods
Results of 2007 “International Survey for Adult Survivors of Extreme Abuse”
http://endritualabuse.org/about/eas-data-on-survivors-of-ritual-abuse-mind-control-and-healing-methods/

Ritual Abuse Evidence with information on the McMartin Case
http://endritualabuse.org/evidence/ritual-abuse-evidence-with-information-on-the-mcmartin-case/

Mind Control: Simple to Complex  Ellen P. Lacter, Ph.D.  (Revised 9-9-2007)
Organizations with a wide range of political and criminal agendas have historically relied on coercive interrogation and brainwashing of various types to force submission and information from enemies and victims, and to indoctrinate and increase cooperation in members and captors.    http://endritualabuse.org/about/mind-control-simple-to-complex/

Scientific Evidence that Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is caused by Childhood Trauma
https://eassurvey.wordpress.com/2014/11/07/evidence-that-dissociative-identity-disorder-multiple-personality-disorder-or-mpd-is-caused-by-childhood-trauma/

Evidence that Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is caused by Childhood Trauma

November 7, 2014 Comments Off on Evidence that Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is caused by Childhood Trauma

Conclusive evidence that Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is caused by extensive childhood trauma and not iatrogenically (resulting from the activity of physicians) or socially. Individual identities have been shown to have clear physiological differences. These are only a few of the many studies available in professional journals and research books.

Child Abuse Wiki – Dissociative Identity Disorder

Dissociative identity disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder or MPD) is defined in the DSM-IV-TR as the presence of two or more personality states or distinct identities that repeatedly take control of one’s behavior. The patient has an inability to recall personal information. The extent of this lack of recall is too great to be explained by normal forgetfulness. The disorder cannot be due to the direct physical effects of a general medical condition or substance.

DID entails a failure to integrate certain aspects of memory, consciousness and identity. Patients experience frequent gaps in their memory for their personal history, past and present. Patients with DID report having severe physical and sexual abuse, especially during childhood. The reports of patients with DID are often validated by objective evidence.

Causes

The causes of dissociative identity disorder are theoretically linked with the interaction of overwhelming stress, traumatic antecedents, insufficient childhood nurturing, and an innate ability to dissociate memories or experiences from consciousness. Prolonged child abuse is frequently a factor, with a very high percentage of patients reporting documented abuse often confirmed by objective evidence. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders states that patients with DID often report having a history of severe physical and sexual abuse. The reports of patients suffering from DID are “often confirmed by objective evidence,” and the DSM notes that the abusers in those situations may be inclined to “deny or distort” these acts. Research has consistently shown that DID is characterized by reports of extensive childhood trauma, usually child abuse. Dissociation is recognized as a symptomatic presentation in response to psychological trauma, extreme emotional stress, and in association with emotional dysregulation and borderline personality disorder. A study of 12 murderers established the connection between early severe abuse and DID. A recent psychobiological study shows that dissociative identity disorder (DID) sufferers’ “origins of their ailment stem more likely from trauma” than sociogenic or iatrogenic origins.

There is strong evidence that DID is not a culture bound phenomenon.
Dissociative disorders have been found in more than a dozen countries. DID has been found in China and Turkey.

Physiological Evidence

Physiological evidence has provided additional evidence to back the existence of DID. One review of the literature found “physiologic and ocular differences across alter personalities.” Additional studies have been found showing optical differences in DID cases. One study found that “eight of the nine MPD subjects consistently manifested physiologically distinct alter personality states.” Other reviews have found additional physiological differences. Brain mapping has also found physiological differences in alternate personalities. A variety of psychiatric rating scales found that multiple personality is strongly related to childhood trauma rather than to an underlying electrophysiological dysfunction. Dissociative identity disorder patients have been found to have smaller hippocampal and amygdalar volumes than healthy subjects.  The involvement of the orbitalfrontal cortex has been proposed in the development of DID, suggesting a possible neurodevelopmental mechanism that would be responsible for the development of “multiple representations of self.” More recent research presents psychobiological evidence indicating actual physical alter states not found in controls.
with permission from http://childabusewiki.org/index.php?title=Dissociative_Identity_Disorder

Research Evidence showing a connection between Dissociative Identity Disorder and Trauma

Objective Documentation of Child Abuse and Dissociation in 12 Murderers With Dissociative Identity Disorder
“Signs and symptoms of dissociative identity disorder in childhood and adulthood were corroborated independently and from several sources in all 12 cases; objective evidence of severe abuse was obtained in 11 cases. The subjects had amnesia for most of the abuse and underreported it. Marked changes in writing style and/or signatures were documented in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes, once and for all, the linkage between early severe abuse and dissociative identity disorder.”
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/abs/10.1176/ajp.154.12.1703

Multiple personality disorder in The Netherlands: a clinical investigation of 71 patients.
The presenting characteristics of the patients showed a striking resemblance to those in several large North American series. Patients had spent an average of 8.2 years in the mental health system prior to correct diagnosis. Patients presented with many different symptoms and frequently received other psychiatric or neurological diagnoses. A history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was reported by 94.4% of the subjects, and 80.6% met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder.
Patients with multiple personality disorder have a stable set of core symptoms throughout North America as well as in Europe.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8434668?dopt=Abstract

Abuse histories in 102 cases of multiple personality disorder.
The authors interviewed 102 individuals with clinical diagnoses of multiple personality disorder at four centres using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule. The patients reported high rates of childhood trauma: 90.2% had been sexually abused, 82.4% physically abused, and 95.1% subjected to one or both forms of child abuse. Over 50% of subjects reported initial physical and sexual abuse before age five. The average duration of both types of abuse was ten years, and numerous different perpetrators were identified. Subjects were equally likely to be physically abused by their mothers or fathers. Sexual abusers were more often male than female, but a substantial amount of sexual abuse was perpetrated by mothers, female relatives, and other females. Multiple personality disorder appears to be a response to chronic trauma originating during a vulnerable period in childhood.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2044042?dopt=Abstract

Evidence Against Iatrogenic and Sociocognitive Models of Dissociative Identity Disorder

Evidence against the iatrogenesis of multiple personality disorder
The authors present data which argue against the iatrogenesis of multiple personality disorder (MPD). Twenty-two cases reported by one Canadian psychiatrist, 23 cases reported by a second Canadian psychiatrist, 48 cases seen by 44 American psychiatrists specializing in MPD, and 44 cases seen by 40 Canadian general psychiatrists without a special interest in MPD are compared. The Canadian general psychiatrists had seen an average of 2.2 cases of MPD, while the Americans had seen an average of 160. There were no differences between these groups on the diagnostic criteria, for MPD or the number of personalities identified. Specialists in MPD are not influencing their patients to create an increased number of personalities or to endorse more diagnostic criteria. Exposure to hypnosis does not appear to influence the phenomenology of MPD.
https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/1424

Iatrogenic DID-An Evaluation of the Scientific Evidence: D. Brown, E. Frischholz & A. Scheflin” from The fall-winter 1999 issue of “The Journal of Psychiatry & Law – “Conclusions…At present the scientific evidence is insufficient and inadequate to support plaintiffs’ complaints that suggestive influences allegedly operative in psychotherapy can create a major psychiatric disorder like MPD per se…there is virtually no support for the unique contribution of hypnosis to the alleged iatrogenic creation of MPD in appropriately controlled research.….alter shaping is not to be confused with alter creation.” p. 624

The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder: A reexamination of the evidence.
According to the sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder (DID; formerly, multiple personality disorder), DID is not a valid psychiatric disorder of posttraumatic origin; rather, it is a creation of psychotherapy and the media….No reason exists to doubt the connection between DID and childhood trauma. Treatment recommendations that follow from the sociocognitive model may be harmful because they involve ignoring the posttraumatic symptomatology of persons with DID.
http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord&uid=1996-01403-003

Fact or Factitious? A Psychobiological Study of Authentic and Simulated Dissociative Identity States
The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic) origin. For the first time, it is shown using brain imaging that neither high nor low fantasy prone healthy women, who enacted two different types of dissociative identity states, were able to substantially simulate these identity states in psychobiological terms. These results do  not support the idea of a sociogenic origin for DID.”
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0039279


Physiological Evidence Showing Physical Differences Between Dissociative Identity Disorder Identity States

Multiple personality disorder. A clinical investigation of 50 cases.
To study the clinical phenomenology of multiple personality, 50 consecutive patients with DSM-III multiple personality disorder were assessed using clinical history, psychiatric interview, neurological examination, electroencephalogram, MMPI, intelligence testing, and a variety of psychiatric rating scales. Results revealed that patients with multiple personality are usually women who present with depression, suicide attempts, repeated amnesic episodes, and a history of childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse. Also common were headaches, hysterical conversion, and sexual dysfunction. Intellectual level varied from borderline to superior. The MMPI reflected underlying character pathology in addition to depression and dissociation. Significant neurological or electroencephalographical abnormalities were infrequent. These data suggest that the etiology of multiple personality is strongly related to childhood trauma rather than to an underlying electrophysiological dysfunction.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3418321

Psychobiological characteristics of dissociative identity disorder: a symptom provocation study.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients function as two or more identities or dissociative identity states (DIS), categorized as ‘neutral identity states’ (NIS) and ‘traumatic identity states’ (TIS). NIS inhibit access to traumatic memories thereby enabling daily life functioning. TIS have access and responses to these memories. We tested whether these DIS show different psychobiological reactions to trauma-related memory.
RESULTS:
Psychobiological differences were found for the different DIS. Subjective and cardiovascular reactions revealed significant main and interactions effects. Regional cerebral blood flow data revealed different neural networks to be associated with different processing of the neutral and trauma-related memory script by NIS and TIS.
CONCLUSIONS:
Patients with DID encompass at least two different DIS. These identities involve different subjective reactions, cardiovascular responses and cerebral activation patterns to a trauma-related memory script.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17008145

One Brain, Two Selves
Our findings reveal the existence of different regional cerebral blood flow patterns for different senses of self. We present evidence for the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior associative cortices to have an integral role in conscious experience.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14683715

Research Articles and Books about Dissociative Identity Disorder and MPD

Overcoming Multiple Personality Disorder By Anne Underwood
Multiple personality disorder is a perplexing phenomenon to outside observers, believed to be brought on by persistent childhood abuse. What is it like living with MPD? And how does a sufferer function, with so many alternate personalities—or “alters”—some of them adults and some children? NEWSWEEK’s Anne Underwood spoke with Karen Overhill—a former sufferer and the subject of a new book, “Switching Time,” by Dr. Richard Baer.
http://www.newsweek.com/overcoming-multiple-personality-disorder-103403

Multiple personality and dissociation, 1791-1992: a complete bibliography
http://boundless.uoregon.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/diss&CISOPTR=38

The official journal of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation (ISSTD), published between 1988 and 1997
https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/1129

Forensic Aspects of Dissociative Identity Disorder
This ground-breaking book examines the role of crime in the lives of people with Dissociative Identity Disorder, formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder, a condition which appears to be caused by prolonged trauma in infancy and childhood. This trauma may be linked with crimes committed against them, crimes they have witnessed, and crimes they have committed under duress.
http://us.karnacbooks.com/product/forensic-aspects-of-dissociative-identity-disorder/25876/

Trauma And Dissociation in a Cross-cultural Perspective: Not Just a North American Phenomenon
An international look at the similarities and differences of long-lasting trauma – Trauma and Dissociation in a Cross-Cultural Perspective examines the psychological, sociological, political, economic, and cultural aspects of trauma and its consequences on people around the world. Dispelling the myth that trauma-related dissociative disorders are a North American phenomenon, this unique book travels through more than a dozen countries to analyze the effects of long-lasting traumatization-both natural and man-made-on adults and children.  http://www.amazon.com/Trauma-Dissociation-Cross-cultural-Perspective-Phenomenon/dp/0789034077

Sybil in Her Own Words  Patrick Suraci Psychologist
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/patrick-suraci/post_2699_b_1152241.html

Sybil and Multiple Personality Disorder
http://sybilandmpd.blogspot.com/

Review of “Sybil in her own words”
http://sybilandmpd.blogspot.com/2011/11/review-of-sybil-in-her-own-words-by.html

Twenty-Two Faces – Inside the Extraordinary Life of Jenny Hill and Her Twenty-Two Multiple Personalities Judy Byington
http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/twenty-two-faces-inside-the-extraordinary-life-of-jenny-hill-and-her-twenty-two-multiple-personalities-judy-byington-msw-lcsw/

Open Letter to Dr. Phil From Jenny Hill
http://ritualabuse.us/ritualabuse/articles/open-letter-to-dr-phil-from-jenny-hill/

Basic Information on DID
Basic Information on Dissociative Identity Disorder with sections on Basic Information on DID from the DSM-IV-TR, The History of DID/MPD, Diagnosing DID, Responses to those that state that DID is iatrogenic or a social construct,  MPD/DID connection to severe abuse, Recent information and DID resources,
Physiological studies showing differences between DID patients and non-DID patients
https://ritualabuse.us/research/did/basic-information-on-didmpd/

Research and Information on Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder) http://ritualabuse.us/research/did/

Disinformation and DID: the Politics of Memory – Brian Moss, MA, MFT
Information on the False Memory Syndrome, Mind Control, Dissociative Identity Disorder, The Media, Ritual Abuse, The Nazis and Programming.
http://ritualabuse.us/research/did/disinformation-and-did-the-politics-of-memory/

Secret Weapons – Two Sisters’ Terrifying True Story of Sex, Spies and Sabotage by Cheryl and Lynn Hersha with Dale Griffis, Ph D. and Ted Schwartz. New Horizon Press ISBN 0-88282-196-2 Is a well-documented, verifiable account of not one, but two childrens’ long untold stories of being CHILD subjects of Project MKUltra. Quotes from the book: “By the time Cheryl Hersha came to the facility, knowledge of multiple personality was so complete that doctors understood how the mind separated into distinct ego states,each unaware of the other. First, the person traumatized had to be both extremely intelligent and under the age of seven, two conditions not yet understood though remaining consistent as factors. The trauma was almost always of a sexual nature…” p. 52 “The government researchers,aware of the information in the professional journals, decided to reverse the process (of healing from hysteric dissociation). They decided to use selective trauma on healthy children to create personalities capable of committing acts desired for national security and defense.” p. 53 – 54 0

Night Stalker serial killer who terrorized California with a spree of satanic murders dies in hospital after 24 years on death row, Experts see strong link between sexual abuse and obesity

June 8, 2013 Comments Off on Night Stalker serial killer who terrorized California with a spree of satanic murders dies in hospital after 24 years on death row, Experts see strong link between sexual abuse and obesity

– Night Stalker serial killer who terrorized California with a spree of satanic murders dies in hospital after 24 years on death row
– Food Addiction In Women Tied To Sexual, Physical Abuse During Childhood
– Abuse victimization in childhood or adolescence and risk of food addiction in adult women
– How Childhood Trauma Can Cause Adult Obesity
– Experts see strong link between sexual abuse and obesity

Night Stalker serial killer who terrorized California with a spree of satanic murders dies in hospital after 24 years on death row

Richard Ramirez, 53, died of liver failure while awaiting execution
Ramirez was convicted in 1989 of 13 murders and later tied to several more. He was a self-proclaimed follower of Satan
His trial was a horror show in which jurors heard about one victim’s eyes being gouged out and another’s head being nearly severed
He earned the nickname Night Stalker
By Associated Press Reporter and Daily Mail Reporter  7 June 2013

….Satanic symbols were left at murder scenes and some victims were forced to ‘swear to Satan’ by the killer, who entered homes through unlocked windows and doors.

After his conviction, Ramirez flashed a two-fingered ‘devil sign’ to photographers and muttered a single word: ‘Evil.’….
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2337625/Night-Stalker-serial-killer-terrorized-California-spree-Satanic-murders-dies-hospital-24-years-death-row.html

Food Addiction In Women Tied To Sexual, Physical Abuse During Childhood David Freeman 06/07/2013

But a shocking new study suggests that some cases of obesity grow out of sexual or physical abuse during childhood.

The study, conducted by scientists at Harvard Medical School, showed that women with a personal history of abuse are much more likely than other women to develop a food addiction.

For the study, a team led by Dr. Susan M. Mason, a postdoctoral fellow at the Connors Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, studied the link between childhood abuse and adult food addiction in 57,321 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study II.

(Food addiction involves behaviors such as repeated episodes of eating despite the absence of hunger and experiencing withdrawal symptoms when cutting back on certain foods, Dr. Mason told The Huffington Post in an email.)

Dr. Mason’s team found that food addiction was almost twice as common among women who indicated that they had experienced sexual or physical abuse before age 18 than among women with no history of childhood abuse, according to a written statement released in conjunction with the research. Women who had experienced both sexual and physical abuse were even more likely to have food addiction.

Overall, the prevalence of food addiction ran from 6 percent in women with no history of childhood abuse all the way to 16 percent among women who had experienced both sexual and physical abuse….

But studies have turned up links between childhood abuse and obesity in men, Dr. Mason told The Huffington Post. One 2009 study of more than 15,000 adolescents found that men with a history of childhood sexual abuse were 66 percent more likely to be obese than other men, Time.com reported in 2010….

As Dr. Vincent Felitti, co-principal investigator of the California-based Adverse Childhood Experiences Study and an expert on the connection between childhood trauma and adult health problems, told Syracuse.com in 2010, “the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity later in life is major, but, since childhood sexual abuse is a topic protected by shame and social taboo, it is concealed by time and by secrecy.”

Dr. Mason’s study was published in the journal Obesity.
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/07/food-addiction-women-sexual-physical-abuse-childhood_n_3398173.html

Abuse victimization in childhood or adolescence and risk of food addiction in adult women
Susan M. Mason PhD,     Alan J. Flint MD,     Alison E. Field ScD, S. Bryn Austin ScD, Janet W. Rich-Edwards ScD DOI: 10.1002/oby.20500

Abstract

Objective: Child abuse appears to increase obesity risk in adulthood, but the mechanisms are unclear. This study examined the association between child abuse victimization and food addiction, a measure of stress-related overeating, in 57,321 adult participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Design and Methods: The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as =3 clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Results: Over eight percent of the sample reported severe physical abuse in childhood, while 5.3% reported severe sexual abuse. Eight percent met the criteria for food addiction. Women with food addiction were 6 units of BMI heavier than women without food addiction. Severe physical and severe sexual abuse were associated with roughly 90% increases in food addiction risk (physical abuse RR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.09; sexual abuse RR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.69, 2.05). The RR for combined severe physical abuse and sexual abuse was 2.40 (95% CI: 2.16, 2.67). Conclusions: A history of child abuse is strongly associated with food addiction in this population.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20500/abstract

How Childhood Trauma Can Cause Adult Obesity
By Maia Szalavitz Tuesday, Jan. 05, 2010

….In recent years, studies by both Felitti and others have largely confirmed the association between sexual abuse — as well as other types of traumatic childhood experience — and eating disorders or obesity. A 2007 study of more than 11,000 California women found that those who had been abused as children were 27% more likely to be obese as adults, compared with those who had not, after adjusting for other factors. A 2009 study of more than 15,000 adolescents found that sexual abuse in childhood raised the risk of obesity 66% in males in adulthood. That study found no such effect in women, but did find a higher risk of eating disorders in sexually abused girls….
http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1951240,00.html

Experts see strong link between sexual abuse and obesity
By Amber Smith July 25, 2010
Manlius, NY — More than half of the women Dr. Wendy Scinta takes care of at her Medical Weight Loss practice in Manlius have sexual abuse in their past.

Typically they lose weight, hit a plateau and put the pounds back on. Over and over again. Until they deal with their demons.

Scinta saw this happen so often, with up to 75 percent of her female patients, that the medical history she takes of new patients now includes questions about abuse. Her treatment involves helping patients be comfortable with the attention that comes with thinner bodies. Mandatory group therapy sessions take place weekly in her office’s conference room.

“If there’s obesity, there’s a good chance, especially if there’s morbid obesity, that something tragic happened in that person’s history, at one point or another,” she said. Those affected are mostly women, mostly 100 or more pounds overweight, and mostly binge eaters. All races, and all social classes are equally represented, she said….
http://www.syracuse.com/news/index.ssf/2010/07/linking_sexual_abuse_to_obesit.html

Rape charge against Stuart Hall deepens BBC scandal, Paedophile sent extreme net child-abuse images, Dr. Phil – The Rest of the Story – By Judy Byington, Author, Twenty-Two Faces

January 24, 2013 Comments Off on Rape charge against Stuart Hall deepens BBC scandal, Paedophile sent extreme net child-abuse images, Dr. Phil – The Rest of the Story – By Judy Byington, Author, Twenty-Two Faces

Rape charge against Stuart Hall deepens BBC scandal

LONDON Wed Jan 23, 2013

(Reuters) – A veteran British TV presenter was charged with rape and 14 counts of indecent assault on underage girls, police said on Tuesday, deepening concerns about sex abuse by top BBC personalities decades ago.

Stuart Hall, 83, best known for hosting “It’s a Knockout” in the 1970s and 1980s, was questioned after late broadcaster Jimmy Savile was exposed last year as a serial child sex abuser, prompting a flurry of further sex crime allegations.

Hall, who was still appearing regularly on BBC radio until recently, had already been charged with three counts of indecent assault, in December. He denied all charges….
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/01/23/uk-britain-bbc-arrest-idUKBRE90M00720130123

Paedophile sent extreme net child-abuse images
Tuesday, January 22, 2013
By Ted Davenport

A COMPUTER engineer has been jailed for sending extreme child-abuse images to other paedophiles on the internet.

Keith Gibson, 50, was found with more than 2,300 photos and movies after police were alerted by colleagues in the national Child Exploitation and Online Protection squad in London.

He was jailed after a judge at Exeter Crown Court told him his activities amounted to the worst case of child pornography he had encountered.

Gibson formed part of an internet paedophile ring which exchanged child sex fantasies and images in chat rooms where some posed as children.

The victims of the abuse included babies under six months old and two of the movies he distributed showed girls aged about three and 10 being raped….
http://www.thisisdevon.co.uk/Paedophile-sent-extreme-net-child-abuse-images/story-17929033-detail/story.html

forwarded with permission

Dr. Phil – The Rest of the Story – By Judy Byington, Author, Twenty-Two Faces
Dr. Phil: “Mentally Ill Moms” – January 11, 2013

As a retired Supervisor of Alberta Mental Health, CEO of Provo Family Counseling Center and therapist for 23 years, I have known and worked with many Dissociate Identity Disorder (DID or multipule personality) sufferers who claimed being ritually abused. Twenty years ago Jenny asked that I write her biography. Since then I have served as a friend, biographer and counselor, though have never done, nor been paid for doing therapy with her.

We intended Twenty-Two Faces as a voice for the ritually abused, explaining DID, exposing the rampant practice of ritual abuse and hopefully saving children from the trauma Jenny endured. We applied to be on the Dr. Phil show in anticipation viewers would gain a better understanding of DID and its tie-in to childhood trauma, specifically ritualized abuse.

We were optimistic, that with Dr. Phil’s help, we might secure Jenny an evaluation at the Colin A Ross Institute. For the last 29 years since she was diagnosed DID at the Utah State Psychiatric Hospital, Jenny has not received therapy for her multiplicity. She is seen by a clinician at Wasatch Mental Health who “maintains” her, but does no treatment for multiplicity. She also sees a psychiatrist twice a year for medication adjustment. For many years she has suffered from DID-related symptoms including Depression.

The Dr. Phil show was taped in 4 sessions. On September 10 just as we left to tape before the live audience, I was informed by staff:

1. Dr. Phil had not read Twenty-Two Faces.

2. Jenny would not be offered treatment.

3. The show producers did not believe Jenny’s story.

As I watched the version that viewers saw on January 11th, I was shocked at what they had done. Jenny’s actual life was apparently not what Dr. Phil intended to portray. His staff had cut and pasted the individual interviews and the taping done before a live audience which resulted in changing the story from a woman who has been without therapy for her multiplicity into describing a mentally ill woman who appears to have been taken advantage of by her therapist. Again, I have never acted as Jenny’s therapist.

Below are some examples of what was left out of “Mentally Ill Moms.”

Producers Revised Jenny’s Story

(1) During my individual taping sessions I was asked to corroborate what is in Jenny’s biography 22 Faces. In the version that aired, none of my answers from the individual tapings were included.

(2) Dr. Phil claimed that major segments of the mental health community believed that DID was a very controversial diagnosis; that some professionals felt it was “near on to impossible to have alter personalities” and in his 30 years of “doing this” he had never met a multiple personality.

Yet, a woman with multiple personalities was on his show last April. Viewers were not told that DID had been an accepted diagnosis included in the APA diagnostic manual, the DSM, since 1994.

(3) On the show Jenny stated that she hadn’t read 22 Faces. She clarifies in a notarized “Open Letter to Dr. Phil” on the 22 faces website ( http://www.22faces.com ) that the book is difficult for her to read because doing so “brings out bad memories” for her. However, she is aware of the contents portraying her life because she lived it and helped write her own biography.

(4) It was not until the very week the show aired in January that I realized they were portraying me as her therapist. I immediately emailed the producer and asked that he change my title to retired therapist. He emailed back that he changed my title on the CBS website, but could not change anything on the actual show.

(5) In August, 2013 producers asked for a video of Jenny changing personalities. We videotaped her changing into Alter J.J. and Homicidal Alter Jenese. It was not a therapy session as labeled on the show, but done with Jenny’s consent and at their request.

(6) I did not sue Robert as Dr. Phil announced. During the break Robert reminded him that it was not a lawsuit, but a Cease and Desist letter from my lawyer. Dr. Phil did not correct that fact that it was not a lawsuit and gave me no opportunity to correct it.

(7) In the taping before a live audience Dr. Phil appeared very surprised when I told him that multiple personalities could only be caused by childhood trauma. His eyes widened, he sat back, and immediately changed the subject. This also did not appear in the final version.

(8) Story rights and book proceeds

Dr. Phil asked, “What happens to the money? Does it go to you?”

I answered, “It’s placed in the 22 Faces account.”

Dr. Phil, “Then why did you make her sign over her rights to the story? You get the money, right?”

I was given no opportunity to answer as the audience was directed to applaud Dr. Phil’s question. After the applause I tried to explain more, but was cut off. My attempt to explain was not included in the final version.

The applause was later pasted in after Robert’s question to me. Again, I was given no time to respond to Robert.

The answer that I would have said if given the opportunity: I signed a legal contract with my literary agent, Paul McCarthy, so he could represent film, electronic and manuscript rights to Jenny’s story. He wanted to make sure that we had a contract with Jenny showing I had the rights to her story. If we were to spend time and money publishing the biography assurance was needed that we had copyright to the story. Thus, Jenny agreed to sign over her story rights. Jenny understood this legality as shown in her notarized “Open Letter to Dr. Phil” on the website ( http://www.22faces.com )

Also in that notarized “Open Letter to Dr. Phil” Jenny states, “I am fully capable of making my own decisions and if I wanted to set up a bank account for monies received from sale of my book I could and would do so. It has been my decision not to set up an account at this time.”

In my individual interviews it was related that the Hill family was upset that I was receiving money for 22 Faces while Jenny wouldn’t benefit from book proceeds. I replied that thus far I had received two royalty checks for $4.00 and $20.00, invested over $20,000.00 of my own money to edit, publish and publicize the biography, plus spent 20 years of my life writing it. It would be quite a while before the book made a profit, if ever. I explained that Hill’s story had never been about money for either Jenny nor myself. It was our purpose to publish Twenty-Two Faces so it could be a voice for the ritually abused and help make the public aware of children who are being traumatized through satanic worship. This answer from me was not in the final version of the show. What was portrayed to viewers was a “therapist” who was taking advantage of her mentally ill client.

Conclusion

I’ve been asked if I regret appearing on Dr. Phil. In part, yes.

Within a couple of days after the program aired 33 one-star negative reviews had been placed on the Amazon Twenty-Two Faces sale site. The majority didn’t refer to the book, but how I was portrayed on the Dr. Phil show. These also included personal attacks on my character. There are hundreds of negative comments under the reviews, while new negative one-star reviews and more personal attacks appear there daily.

On the other hand, the book has been highly publicized. And, many who experienced abuse similar to Jenny’s and their therapists have placed comments refuting these demeaning attacks. Most have thanked us for speaking out through Twenty-Two Faces and appearing on Dr. Phil.

My hope for Jenny is that we can find treatment for her multiplicity. The APA psychiatric manual DSM states that Dissociation affects a large section of the population. Thus, I am also in hope that Dr. Phil will revist DID or multiplicity and it’s relationship to childhood trauma with the purpose of educating his viewers on this growing problem.
http://22faces.com/dr-phil-the-rest-of-the-story/

Study of the Day: 1 in 4 Adults With HIV Were Sexually Abused as Kids

March 24, 2012 Comments Off on Study of the Day: 1 in 4 Adults With HIV Were Sexually Abused as Kids

Study of the Day: 1 in 4 Adults With HIV Were Sexually Abused as Kids
By Hans Villarica Mar 23 2012

New research from Duke University shows that psychological trauma predicts increased vulnerability for HIV/AIDS and faster health decline.

METHODOLOGY: Duke University researchers led by Brian Pence monitored more than 600 HIV-positive patients, aged 20 to 71, in the “Coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast” study. They investigated possible links to traumatic experiences, HIV-related behaviors, and health outcomes.

RESULTS: A quarter of the respondents were sexually abused as children. Moreover, half of the patients had faced three or more traumatic experiences in their lifetime, including enduring physical abuse and witnessing domestic violence as a child, living through a parent’s suicide attempt or completion, or losing a child.

These painful experiences predicted worse health-related behaviors, such as instances of unprotected sex, missed antiretroviral medications, recent emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Those who lived through such ordeals were also more likely to die or see their health decline during the two-year study period.

CONCLUSION: Psychological trauma heightens the risk for HIV infection, medication lapses, and disease progression.  http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2012/03/study-of-the-day-1-in-4-adults-with-hiv-were-sexually-abused-as-kids/254666/

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Apr 1;59(4):409-416.
Childhood Trauma and Health Outcomes in HIV-Infected Patients: An Exploration of Causal Pathways.
Pence BW, Mugavero MJ, Carter TJ, Leserman J, Thielman NM, Raper JL, Proeschold-Bell RJ, Reif S, Whetten K.

METHODS:
In 611 outpatient people living with HIV/AIDS, we tested whether trauma’s influence on later health and behaviors was mediated by coping styles, self-efficacy, social support, trust in the medical system, recent stressful life events, mental health, and substance abuse.

RESULTS:
In models adjusting only for sociodemographic and transmission category confounders (estimating total effects), pasttrauma exposure was associated with 7 behavioral and health outcomes….

CONCLUSIONS:
These data suggest that past trauma influences adult health and behaviors through pathways other than the psychosocial mediators considered in this model. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22107822

Questions and Answers Regarding Dissociative Amnesia

June 22, 2011 Comments Off on Questions and Answers Regarding Dissociative Amnesia

” Scientific evidence shows that it is not rare for traumatized people to experience amnesia or delayed recall for the trauma.

Amnesia has been reported in combat, for crimes, and for concentration camp experiences and torture. The more severe the trauma, the more likely it is to be forgotten.

Overall, a recovered memory is just as likely to be accurate as a continuously remembered one.”

The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder: a reexamination of the evidence.
” No reason exists to doubt the connection between DID and childhood trauma.”

Questions and Answers Regarding Dissociative Amnesia
by Stephanie Dallam RN, MS, FNP

….there is near-universal scientific acceptance of the fact that the mind is capable of avoiding conscious recall of traumatic experiences.

….Is dissociation a rare phenomenon?
No. Scientific evidence shows that it is not rare for traumatized people to experience amnesia or delayed recall for the trauma. Amnesia has been reported in combat, for crimes, and for concentration camp experiences and torture. Evidence of this process can be found in the early literature on World War I and World War II.

….Carlson, E., & Rosser-Hogan, R. (April, 1993). Mental health status of Cambodian refugees ten years after leaving their homes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63 (2), 223-231.

Dissociation is also a frequent finding in survivors extreme terror. Between 1975 and 1979, an estimated one to three million of a population of seven million Cambodians were killed or died of starvation. Carlson, E., & Rosser-Hogan selected 50 subjects at random from a list of all refugees (~500) resettled by nonprofit organization between 1983 and 1985. None had any formal education and had lived in the US for a mean of 5 years. 86% met the criteria for PTSD. The mean number of traumatic experiences the refugees endorsed was 14 and “90% reported amnesia for upsetting events.”

….Krell, R. (1993). Child survivors of the Holocaust: Strategies of adaptation. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 38 , 384-389.

Krell reported on 22 Holocaust survivors who, as children, hid from the Nazis.
“As children they were encouraged not to tell, but to lead normal lives and forget the past . . .”
“The most pervasive preoccupation of child survivors is the continuing struggle with memory, whether there is too much or too little . . .”
“For a child survivor today, an even more vexing problem is the intrusion of fragments of memory – most are emotionally powerful and painful but make no sense. They seem to become more frequent with time and are triggered by thousands of subtle or not so subtle events . . .”

Marks, J. (1995). The hidden children: The secret survivors of the Holocaust. Toronto : Bantam Books.

One holocaust survivor, Ava Landy, describes her amnesia:
“So much of my childhood between the ages of four and nine is blank….It’s almost as if my life was smashed into little pieces . . .
The trouble is, when I try to remember, I come up with so little. This ability to forget was probably my way of surviving emotionally as a child. Even now, whenever anything unpleasant happens to me, I have a mental garbage can in which I can put all the bad stuff and forget it . . . .
I’m still afraid of being hungry. . . . I never leave my house without some food….Again, I don’t remember being hungry. I asked my sister and she said that we were hungry. So I must have been! I just don’t remember.” (p. 188).

What types of traumas result in dissociative amnesia?
A review of 50 studies revealed that amnesia rates tend to increase with severity of trauma and is particularly high in victims of sex crimes….

What is the relation of memory recovery to psychotherapy?
Albach et al. studied 97 adult victims of extreme sexual abuse and a control group of 65 women, matched for age and education who reported on their memories of “ordinary unpleasant childhood experiences.”  The abuse survivors were broken into two groups.  One group had participated in psychotherapy while the other group had not. There was no significant differences in amnesia, memory recovery, or other memory phenomena between the survivors who participated in psychotherapy and those who did not.

…How accurate are recovered memories?
Dalenberg, C. J. (1996). Accuracy, timing and circumstances of disclosure in therapy of recovered and continuous memories of abuse. Journal of Psychiatry & Law,24 (2), 229-75.

Accuracy for Continuous Versus Recovered Memories
Percent with evidence supporting memory
Continuous  75%
Recovered   75%

Conclusion
Scientific evidence shows that it is not rare for traumatized people to experience amnesia or delayed recall for the trauma. Amnesia has been reported in combat, for crimes, and for concentration camp experiences and torture.
The more severe the trauma, the more likely it is to be forgotten.
Overall, a recovered memory is just as likely to be accurate as a continuously remembered one. However, recovered memories have a prominence of emotional and sensory-perceptual elements vs. declarative (verbal) elements. They are often fragmentary and incomplete and thus hard to make into coherent story.
http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/tm/amnesia.html

The sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder: a reexamination of the evidence.
Gleaves DH.

According to the sociocognitive model of dissociative identity disorder (DID; formerly, multiple personality disorder), DID is not a valid psychiatric disorder of posttraumatic origin; rather, it is a creation of psychotherapy and the media. Support for the model was recently presented by N.P. Spanos (1994).

In this article, the author reexamines the evidence for the model and concludes that it is based on numerous false assumptions about the psychopathology, assessment, and treatment of DID. Most recent research on the dissociative disorders does not support (and in fact disconfirms) the sociocognitive model, and many inferences drawn from previous research appear unwarranted.

No reason exists to doubt the connection between DID and childhood trauma. Treatment recommendations that follow from the sociocognitive model may be harmful because they involve ignoring the posttraumatic symptomatology of persons with DID.

Psychol Bull. 1994 Jul;116(1):143-65.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8711016

Childhood Trauma and Risk for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

May 9, 2011 Comments Off on Childhood Trauma and Risk for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Childhood Trauma and Risk for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Association With Neuroendocrine Dysfunction – Journal: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(1):72-80 Authors: Christine Heim, PhD; Urs M. Nater, PhD; Elizabeth Maloney, MS, DrPH; Roumiana Boneva, MD, PhD; James F. Jones, MD; William C. Reeves, MD, MSc

Context
Childhood trauma appears to be a potent risk factor for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that early experience programs the development of regulatory systems that are implicated in the pathophysiology of CFS, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the contribution of childhood trauma to neuroendocrine dysfunction in CFS remains obscure.

Objectives
To replicate findings on the relationship between childhood trauma and risk for CFS and to evaluate the association between childhood trauma and neuroendocrine dysfunction in CFS.
Design, Setting, and Participants
A case-control study of 113 persons with CFS and 124 well control subjects identified from a general population sample of 19 381 adult residents of Georgia….

Results
Individuals with CFS reported significantly higher levels of childhood trauma and psychopathological symptoms than control subjects. Exposure to childhood trauma was associated with a 6-fold increased risk of CFS. Sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were most effective in discriminating CFS cases from controls. There was a graded relationship between exposure level and CFS risk. The risk of CFS conveyed by childhood trauma further increased with the presence of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Only individuals with CFS and with childhood trauma exposure, but not individuals with CFS without exposure, exhibited decreased salivary cortisol concentrations after awakening compared with control subjects.

Conclusions
Our results confirm childhood trauma as an important risk factor of CFS. In addition, neuroendocrine dysfunction, a hallmark feature of CFS, appears to be associated with childhood trauma. This possibly reflects a biological correlate of vulnerability due to early developmental insults. Our findings are critical to inform pathophysiological research and to devise targets for the prevention of CFS.
http://www.endfatigue.com/health_articles_c/Cfs_fm-child_abuse_can_lead_to_cfs_fibromyalgia.html

Man Arrested After Suing the Vatican, Trauma and adult mental health conference

November 2, 2010 Comments Off on Man Arrested After Suing the Vatican, Trauma and adult mental health conference

Forensic Aspects of Dissociative Identity Disorder – Child Abuse Wiki

Man Arrested After Suing the Vatican By TIM HULL  November 01, 2010   SAN FRANCISCO (CN) – A man charged with assaulting a priest at a Jesuit retirement home has sued the Vatican, claiming it knew its priest had sexually molested him and others, and failed to protect him from being “raped, tortured, and forced to engage in sexual acts with his own brother,” when they were children.
William Lynch, 43, was arrested on Friday, 2 days after he sued the Vatican, the Oakland Archdiocese, the Jesuit Order, The Christian Family Movement and others in Federal Court. Lynch was accused of assaulting the Rev. Jerold Lindner, 65, in the lobby of a retirement home in Los Gatos, in May this year.
Lynch claims Lindner oversaw his rape, torture and abuse at a summer camp when he was 7, and that the religious defendants knew of Lindner’s propensities, and covered for him for decades.
“In May 1975, plaintiff was entrusted to a CFM [Christian Family Movement] children’s camp in Portola State Park in the state of California, whereat he was raped, tortured, and forced to engage in sexual acts with is own brother by Jesuit priest and CFM Camp Spiritual Advisor Jerold W. Lindner. Plaintiff was 7 years old at that time,” according to the complaint.
“Not only did the Jesuit Order know of Lindner’s propensities for child rape and abuse, Lindner was well known by his order as a ‘torturer of children.’ He was specifically known for sexual gratification while torturing his victims among his order, and his reputation and knowledge of his crimes extended all the way to the Holy See in the 1970s [and] 1980s.”….Lynch says in his complaint that the Vatican and the other defendants continue to protect the retired priest after “decades of abuse and hundreds of victims.”….The Associated Press reported on Friday, however, that “Father Lindner, 65, has been accused of abuse by nearly a dozen people, including his sister and nieces and nephews. … He has previously denied abusing the Lynch boys and has not been criminally charged. The abuse falls outside the statute of limitations.”
The AP report continued: “Father Lindner was removed from the ministry and placed at the Los Gatos retirement home in 2001. “He was named in two additional lawsuits for abuse between 1973 and 1985, according to the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. The cases were included in a $660 million settlement struck between the church and more than 550 plaintiffs in 2007.”….”Lindner’s sexual abuse of children began in [the] 1950s, continued through the 1970s and persisted into the 1980s, when Lindner was actually promoted by defendants to a teacher post at an all boys school, Loyola High School in Los Angeles,” according to the complaint.
http://www.courthousenews.com/2010/11/01/31496.htm

Trauma and adult mental health conference
When: 30/11/2010 10.00am to 4.30pm
Where: ORT House Conference Centre, London NW1 UK
Childhood trauma as a result of abuse is frequently the catalyst for ongoing mental health related problems in adulthood. Statistics about trauma and adult mental health issues make shocking reading.
The impacts of trauma are far-reaching, touching every part of survivors’ lives. Social problems such as homelessness, physical manifestations such as self-harm and eating disorders and personal and emotional difficulties in forming healthy relationships are all possible outcomes. The conference will address some of the outcomes linked with childhood trauma; the pathways to recovery and possible therapeutic interventions that can be used….Substance misuse is a particular area of concern and the expert speaker will explore the links between trauma and substance misuse in adults.

The diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder will be analysed and explained – 90% of adults with dissociative identity disorder (DID) were abused as children.
A final session will revisit the issues around childhood abuse and describe ways in which early intervention can prevent the cycle repeating itself.

Chair: Adah Sachs Consultant Psychotherapist, Clinic for Dissociative Studies
Peter Saunders Chief Executive and Founder of NAPAC
Peter Jones Lecturer in Mental Health, Bournemouth University, and Chair, Counselling in Prisons Network
Jim Symington Deputy Director, National Mental Health Development Unit
Dr Nick Maquire Chartered Clinical Psychologist and Director, PG Cert in Cognitive Therapy, University of Southampton
Kathryn A Livingstone Voluntary Co-ordinator, Trainer and Trustee,First Person Plural
Jean Budge Support Services Supervisor, Beyond Trauma, Health in Mind
Rex Haigh FRCPsych Consultant Psychiatrist, Berkshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Clinical Advisor, National Personality Disorder Programme, Department of Health and Senior Fellow, Institute of Mental Health, Nottingham
Alan Corbett Former Director of Respond; former National Clinical Director of the CARI (Children at Risk in Ireland) Foundation and Psychotherapist
Jacqui Lovell Project lead, developing partners cic
http://www.pavpub.com/p-284-trauma-and-adult-mental-health.aspx?s=1

How Childhood Trauma Can Cause Adult Obesity

January 18, 2010 § Leave a comment

How Childhood Trauma Can Cause Adult Obesity By Maia Szalavitz Tuesday, Jan. 05, 2010

Felitti wondered if there was something similar barring weight loss in other patients – or causing obesity itself. In the late ’80s, he began a systematic study of 286 obese people, and discovered that 50% had been sexually abused as children. That rate is more than 50% higher than the rate normally reported by women, and more than triple the average rate in men. Indeed, the average rates of sexual abuse are themselves unsettling: according to a large 2003 study conducted by John Briere and Diana Elliott of the University of Southern California, 14% of men and 32% of women said they were molested at least once as children.


In recent years, studies by both Felitti and others have largely confirmed the association between sexual abuse – as well as other types of traumatic childhood experience – and eating disorders or obesity. A 2007 study of more than 11,000 California women found that those who had been abused as children were 27% more likely to be obese as adults, compared with those who had not, after adjusting for other factors. A 2009 study of more than 15,000 adolescents found that sexual abuse in childhood raised the risk of obesity 66% in males in adulthood. That study found no such effect in women, but did find a higher risk of eating disorders in sexually abused girls.
http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1951240,00.html

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