Human trafficking epidemic 21st century slavery hits close to home, ‘A Culture of Silence’ speaks for Sierra Leone, Sexual Offences Bill to be published next week
November 14, 2014 Comments Off on Human trafficking epidemic 21st century slavery hits close to home, ‘A Culture of Silence’ speaks for Sierra Leone, Sexual Offences Bill to be published next week
Former journalist says human trafficking an epidemic
21st century slavery hits close to home By Maddy Lauria Nov 13, 2014
Rehoboth Beach — The Sussex County Republican Women’s Club received a harsh reality check when veteran journalist Christine Dolan described a human trafficking case that struck close to home.
“Listen up … you don’t have a clue,” Dolan said as she began to discuss her more than decade-long experiences with human trafficking. “Just like the Industrial Revolution, just like the Victorian era, just like the African slave trade, you are living in the digital age of slavery in the 21st century. It is not just on the street. It is over the internet.”
Dolan, who worked for ABC and CNN in the 1980s, was commissioned by the International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children to study child exploitation in 2000….
Dolan said Easton, Md., shows human trafficking occurs close to home. While many attendees raised their hands to say they were familiar with the town, most audience members voiced surprise that a brothel, operated a few doors down from a Mexican restaurant on Dover Street, was busted just a few years ago, leading to sex trafficking convictions in fall 2013….
Now Dolan is on a mission to spread the word that human trafficking crimes are proliferating throughout the world, which she outlined in her “Tots to Trafficking to Terrorism” presentation during the club’s dinner meeting Oct. 22. She said globalization and increased internet access provide ways for everything from child pornography to trafficking for torture to make a mark on international markets.
“Terrorism is a transnational, transcriminal network. Trafficking is transcriminal, transnational network,” she said. Dolan said groups like al-Qaida and the group known as the Islamic State are trafficking organizations with a hand in sex and labor trafficking as well as torture rituals.
Dolan outlined the main branches of human trafficking to include sex and labor, sex tourism, child pornography, child soldiers, organ trafficking, skin trafficking and ritual abuse torture. Dolan cited an evidence comparison by Interpol that 89 percent of online incidents affect victims between the age of 6 and 12, while 10 percent include victims age 3 and younger. She said there have been great efforts made since 2000, but the demand for younger victims has increased, with a jump from 3 percent in 2005 to the recently reported 10 percent of young trafficking victims….
‘A Culture of Silence’ speaks for Sierra Leone
By Peter Keough Globe Correspondent November 13, 2014
For most people, the sufferings of African countries such as Sierra Leone, which has endured a hellish civil war only to be confronted with the Ebola epidemic, are regarded as passing news items.
For the documentary filmmaker Raouf J. Jacob, however, Sierra Leone is his beloved homeland. Forced to emigrate to America with his family in 1999 in the midst of the internecine conflict, he returns in “A Culture of Silence” to the place of his birth to see how it has rebounded from its bloody past. He and his partner and fellow filmmaker Lara M. Moreno tour the country with their camera to see how it has confronted its intransigent problems. These include poverty, the exploitation of resources by foreign corporations, cultural misogyny epitomized by the practice of female genital mutilation, and the legacy of war embodied by its most tragic victims — child soldiers kidnapped by warlords and forced to kill….
Sexual Offences Bill to be published next week, says Minister for Justice
Legislation will strengthen laws on grooming, pornography and harassment
New legislation on sexual offences will strengthen laws on grooming, pornography and harassment, Minister for Justice Frances Fitzgerald has said.
Thu, Nov 13, 2014,
….“It will include strengthened provisions on age of consent, grooming and harassment,” Ms Fitzgerald said. “And it will strengthen offences of acquiring pornography online.”
The department received approval from the Cabinet to draft the legislation last December. It had been described as “long overdue” by organisations working in the field and by politicians including Senator Jillian van Turnhout.
The Minister also said yesterday that she would bring forward legislation on victims’ rights and on domestic violence in the new year….
Victims’ rights The new victims’ rights legislation will be introduced in 2015 so that Ireland can comply with its obligations under the EU victims’ directive, which was adopted at European level in 2012.
The directive includes obligations to protect victims from harm and intimidation and provide access to information, services and compensation.
Ms Fitzgerald said the new legislation would be “a very important mark of a change of approach to victims” and would reposition victims so their needs are central to the criminal justice system….
Criminal Restitution for Victims of Child Pornography, Jimmy Savile manipulated BBC security staff so they would allow girls into his dressing room
November 12, 2013 Comments Off on Criminal Restitution for Victims of Child Pornography, Jimmy Savile manipulated BBC security staff so they would allow girls into his dressing room
After Five Years – Supreme Court Brief Finally Completed!
Over five years ago, I began an unprecedented effort to obtain criminal restitution for victims of child pornography and online exploitation. A few minutes ago, our United States Supreme Court brief was finally delivered to the printer. The oral argument in this groundbreaking case is scheduled for January 22, 2014.
Marsh Law Firm’s ChildLaw Blog
Commentary, insight and analysis on children’s law, policy and current issues.
Doyle Randall Paroline vs. Amy Unknown Supreme Court Resources
Jimmy Savile: IPCC say Greater Manchester Police in the clear over complaints 11 Nov 2013
Police had 17 reports by women from the region claiming abuse by the DJ during the 1960s
A watchdog says it won’t take action against Greater Manchester Police over the way the force handled complaints about Jimmy Savile.
When the DJ was exposed as a serial sex abuser last year, some 17 women came forward and reported to GMP that they had been molested by Savile from the 1960s.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission launched an investigation amid reports that police officers elsewhere in the country helped Savile cover up his crimes.
Now the watchdog has announced it will conduct a further enquiry into a West Yorkshire Police inspector who ‘acted on behalf of’ Savile inappropriately by contacting Surrey Police ahead of a police interview in 2009….
Pervert Jimmy Savile manipulated BBC security staff so they would allow girls into his dressing room
6 Nov 2013 By Andy Lines
Handwritten message reveals how the twisted celebrity deliberately cultivated a phony friendship with doormen at the corporation
Serial pervert Jimmy Savile frequently manipulated BBC security staff so they would allow girls into his dressing room.
A handwritten message, published by the Mirror today, reveals how the twisted celebrity deliberately cultivated a phony friendship with doormen at the corporation so they would never question his requests.
The sickeningly chummy note, addressed to “BBC security friends” and signed with his customary smiling face drawn inside an expansive J at the start of his name, was scrawled on notepaper from Stoke Mandeville hospital where he was a fundraiser.
A BBC insider said: “It perfectly illustrates the position of power Savile had. “He flattered and made friends with security staff and this enabled him to carry out his horrendous attacks.
“He even wrote this on headed notepaper of the National Spinal Injuries Centre. This was not unusual.”
Savile used BBC studios to abuse dozens of girls and young women….
Ariel Castro Allegedly Kept Sexually Abused Kidnap Victims In ‘Chains And Ropes’, Eric Toth, accused of child pornography, evaded authorities for 5 years
May 9, 2013 Comments Off on Ariel Castro Allegedly Kept Sexually Abused Kidnap Victims In ‘Chains And Ropes’, Eric Toth, accused of child pornography, evaded authorities for 5 years
Ariel Castro Allegedly Kept Sexually Abused Kidnap Victims In ‘Chains And Ropes’
The three kidnapped women who endured a decade inside a rundown Cleveland home were bound by ropes and chains and rarely let outside, according to Cleveland’s police chief.
“We have confirmation that they were bound and there was chains and ropes in the home,” Police Chief Michael McGrath said Wednesday morning on the “Today” show. He also said they were “very rarely” permitted in suspect Ariel Castro’s backyard.
Ohio man charged with kidnapping, rape By Meghan Barr and Thomas J. Sheeran Associated Press May 08, 2013
CLEVELAND (AP) — Kidnapping and rape charges were filed Wednesday against a man arrested after three women missing for about a decade were found alive at his home.
Homeowner Ariel Castro was charged while his brothers, Pedro and Onil Castro, were held but faced no immediate charges.
The men were in custody and couldn’t be reached for comment. Their brother-in-law has said the family is ‘‘shocked’’ after hearing about the women at the home.
The three women were subjected to prolonged sexual and psychological abuse and suffered miscarriages, a city councilman briefed on the case said Wednesday.
Councilman Brian Cummins said that many details remain unclear, including the number of pregnancies and the conditions under which the miscarriages occurred. He also said the women were kept in the basement for some time without having access to the rest of the house. Police said they were apparently bound with ropes and chains.
The horrific allegations came out as police built a case.
‘‘We know that the victims have confirmed miscarriages, but with who, how many and what conditions we don’t know,’’ Cummins said. He added: ‘‘It sounds pretty gruesome.’’….
A 2005 domestic-violence filing in Cuyahoga County Domestic Relations Court accused Ariel Castro of twice breaking the nose of his children’s mother, knocking out a tooth, dislocating each shoulder and threatening to kill her and her daughters three or four times in a year.
The filing for a protective order by Grimilda Figueroa also said that Castro frequently abducted her daughters and kept them from her.
In 1993, Castro was arrested on a domestic-violence charge and spent three days in jail before he was released on bail. A grand jury did not return an indictment against him, according to court documents, which don’t detail the allegations….
Eric Toth, accused of child pornography, evaded authorities for 5 years
By Justin Jouvenal, Published: May 5
Eric Toth was on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted list and had been featured on “America’s Most Wanted,” but last fall, one of the most notorious fugitives in America may have been set to take a stage.
He appeared to be booked to speak at a Las Vegas tech conference.
Colleagues knew the speaker under a different name as an Austin-based tech writer and computer technician they described as brilliant and friendly. But they now suspect that he is the same man who is accused of filming a sex act with a child while he was a teacher at the District’s exclusive Beauvoir school in 2007 or 2008.
They realized the night before the October speech that the tech writer had vanished. Calls and e-mails went unreturned. His Facebook page went dormant. They never saw him again.
His whereabouts remained a mystery until Toth, 31, was arrested in Nicaragua in April. Three people who saw arrest photos of the lanky man with long brown hair said he was the same person they knew from Austin. FBI officials declined to confirm their account. Toth’s attorney did not return a call for comment.
“My reaction was shock,” said Joel Stewart, one of the man’s former bosses at a computer repair store. “This was not an unlikable person. I think a lot of us came to think of him as something of a friend.”
During Toth’s five years on the run, the pattern played out again and again as the man the FBI says is an expert in social engineering and computers was able to invent fresh personas, allegedly obtain fraudulent documents and win the trust of unsuspecting people. When it appeared that he might be discovered, he would simply melt away.
All the while, the man, who authorities warned would not stop molesting children until he was caught, had contact with kids. The Washington Post has been able to reconstruct his time in hiding from the District to the Southwest to Latin America.
“It’s a case study in you never know who you are standing next to,” said Chris Bangs, who worked with the tech writer….
October 15, 2011 Comments Off on U.S. bishop charged for not taking porn to police
U.S. bishop charged for not taking porn to police
October 14, 2011 (CBS/AP)
KANSAS CITY, Mo. – Kansas City’s Catholic bishop was charged Friday with not telling police about child pornography found on a priest’s computer, making him the highest-ranking U.S. Catholic official indicted on a charge of failing to protect children.
Kansas City-St. Joseph Catholic Diocese Bishop Robert Finn, the first U.S. bishop criminally charged with sheltering an abusive clergyman, pleaded not guilty to one misdemeanor count of failing to report suspected child abuse.
Jackson County Prosecutor Jean Peters Baker said Finn and his diocese, which also was charged with one count, had “reasonable cause” to suspect a child had been abused after learning of the images.
“Now that the grand jury investigation has resulted in this indictment, my office will pursue this case vigorously because it is about protecting children,” Baker said. “I want to ensure there are no future failures to report resulting in other unsuspecting victims.”
Finn has acknowledged that he and other diocese officials knew for months about hundreds of “disturbing” images of children that were discovered on a priest’s computer but did not report the matter to authorities or turn over the computer.
….The New York Times reports that Bishop Finn was appointed in 2005 and his vision to return the diocese to more traditional practices has drawn strong opinions. The paper reports he is one of only a few bishops affiliated with Opus Dei, a conservative movement….
Bishop Finn Indictment
August 4, 2011 Comments Off on 72 charged in online child pornography ring, Violence Against Women and effects
“the bulletin board distributed the equivalent of 16,000 DVDs of child pornography, adding that the department had recovered more than 1 million images in the U.S. alone.”
“In the United States, more than 20 percent of women have experienced intimate-partner violence, stalking or both. A full 17 percent have reported rape or attempted rape, according to background information in the study.”
72 charged in online child pornography ring
Fifty-two have been arrested in the U.S. and abroad and 13 have pleaded guilty in the case, the result of a crackdown by the Justice and Homeland Security departments. Twenty remain at large.
By Andrew Seidman, Washington Bureau
August 3, 2011
Reporting from Washington—
The Justice Department has charged 72 suspected members of an online child pornography ring that encouraged its members to engage in sexual acts with children 12 and under and submit gruesome, violent material to build a massive private database of images and videos on the Internet.
The crackdown is the result of a joint effort by the departments of Justice and Homeland Security launched in December 2009 to target about 500 people in 13 countries on five continents for their suspected participation in “Dreamboard,” a members-only online bulletin board that was created to encourage the sharing of graphic images and videos.
“The members of this criminal network shared a demented dream to create the preeminent online community for the promotion of child sexual exploitation,” Atty. Gen. Eric H. Holder Jr. said in a statement, “but for the children they victimized, this was nothing short of a nightmare.”
According to court documents filed in Louisiana, where the ring originated, administrators for Dreamboard set up strict barriers to entry and created a sophisticated membership system that offered incentives for further contributions to the website. Individuals had to post child pornography in order to join the site. To maintain membership, individuals were required to continue to upload images of sexual abuse….
Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano said that the bulletin board distributed the equivalent of 16,000 DVDs of child pornography, adding that the department had recovered more than 1 million images in the U.S. alone.
Violence Against Women Can Take Lifelong Toll: Study
Research shows how rates of mental and physical illness rise, quality of life falls
By Serena Gordon HealthDay Reporter
TUESDAY, Aug. 2 (HealthDay News)
Women who’ve suffered from gender-based violence are more likely to develop anxiety disorders or other mental woes, experience physical and mental disabilities, and have worse quality of life than other women, new research shows.
Gender-based violence includes rape and other forms of sexual assault, intimate-partner violence (such as spouse abuse) and stalking.
Risks for these long-term problems rose with the intensity of abuse. For example, women who’d experienced three or four types of gender-based violence had 10 times the odds of developing an anxiety disorder than women who haven’t experienced such violence, the study found. The odds of a woman who’d been subjected to such violence developing a substance abuse problem were almost six times higher than for a woman who hasn’t experienced gender-based violence….
Results of the study are published in the Aug. 3 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association….
In the United States, more than 20 percent of women have experienced intimate-partner violence, stalking or both. A full 17 percent have reported rape or attempted rape, according to background information in the study.
The data for Rees’ study came from a national survey done in Australia on mental health and well-being. The survey included over 4,400 women between the ages of 16 and 85 years old.
In that group, 1,218 women (27 percent) reported experiencing at least one form of gender-based violence, while 139 had been exposed to three or more forms of gender-based violence.
The average age that women were first raped was 13 years old and 12 years old for sexual assault. The average age that women were beaten by a partner or stalked was 22 years old.
The more violence a woman was exposed to, the greater her risk of developing mental illnesses, according to the study.
July 17, 2011 Comments Off on Casey Anthony case sealed evidence, Child p_rn victims get younger, violence
“Seemingly normal people….are charged with possessing and making child porn, a $3-billion-a-year industry that the federal government has labeled the new silent child abuse…..Currently, there are an estimated 100,000 known child porn websites”
WHEN WILL WE SEE THE “SEALED” EVIDENCE?
2011 July 16 by Wendy Murphy
First, I’m excited to let you all know that I have a book coming out very soon. Technology allows for the publication of books far faster than ever before, but it still takes a bit of time to get things organized. Stay tuned here for more information on the likely release date. My hope is that it will be out before the end of August….
Assuming the backstory includes “sealed” evidence of postitution and/or child pornography, which I believe is the case, there are two key reasons this information would have been excluded from trial. One is that the court “sealed” the information because it was never directly connected to Caylee’s murder. If highly prejudicial information is not strongly related to proof of the crime, which is to say, the witnesses have not explained why the evidence helps to prove or disprove guilt, the court would be compelled to exclude the information as unduly prejudicial without sufficient probative force.
The second reason is that the feds are involved in investigating the porn issues and they want to be able to proceed on these charges against Casey, and perhaps others, in federal court. If the evidence had been allowed in during the murder trial, Casey’s acquittal would have precluded retrial on the porn charges under double jeopardy principles….
Under the Supreme Court’s “same facts” Blockburger test, if the state offered any evidence of Casey Anthony’s involvement with prostitution or child pornography, those facts could not be used against her again, in a pornography prosecution, by state or federal officials….
But now that that she’s been acquitted, the truth should be told about what was sealed during trial, and what’s going on with the feds….
Feds: Child pornography victims get younger, violence increases
Jan. 31, 2011
DETROIT — Child pornography isn’t just more pervasive, it’s getting even uglier.
Federal prosecutors here say they have witnessed the disturbing trend with the kids getting younger — toddlers and infants as young as 6 months old — turning up in photos and videos.
And the assaults are getting worse. It’s not just still images of children in the nude, they say.
“There’s a misconception in the public arena that these are mainly still images of children without clothes on. Well, the truth is that the majority of the pictures that are traded among these guys almost inevitably involve a child being either raped, or being forced to perform some type of sexual act on an adult or child,” said Assistant U.S. Attorney Kevin Mulcahy, chief of the general crimes unit in the U.S. Attorney’s Office in Detroit.
Child porn lovers live in your neighborhood
They aren’t just creepy loners.
Seemingly normal people — doctors, coaches, authors, engineers, teens — are charged with possessing and making child porn, a $3-billion-a-year industry that the federal government has labeled the new silent child abuse….
Currently, there are an estimated 100,000 known child porn websites, according to Brigham Young University Women’s Services. Child porn accounts for one-quarter of the $12-billion U.S. porn industry….
The Justice Department report says complaints of online enticement of children have more than tripled from 2004 to 2008, and complaints of child prostitution rose tenfold. Since 2006, more than 8,600 people have been prosecuted at the federal level on child porn charges….
March 15, 2011 Comments Off on Survivorship Ritual Abuse Webinars
You do not have to be a Survivorship member to attend a Webinar — we welcome all survivors, as well as partners, friends, therapists, clergy, and other supporters. And a Webinar is a very good introduction to Survivorship’s philosophy and resources.
OUR NEXT WEBINAR
Saturday, March 26
12 noon Pacific Time
“Inner Structures – Settle In and Get Comfortable.”
Trish was born into a female-only matriarchal healing cult and an ancient patriarchal family clan who were connected to a variety of organized crime groups, including a group of wealthy political elite and their child pornography rings and child sex slave trafficking network. She is a 50-year-old Canadian Survivor of extreme abuse and trauma that included MKUltra-style ritual abuse, torture, mind control, and experimentation.
Trish will share some of the ways she handled her many different implanted Inner structures and tell how she, as an adult, intentionally self-created more structures that served healing purposes. The Webinar will be designed for dialog and interaction rather than as a lecture.
Last year, Webinars cost $20.00. Now we have changed to a sliding scale so that each person can pay what they are able to. The scale starts at $50.00 and, in $5.00 increments, goes down to $0.00 (full scholarship). There is no longer any need to request a full or partial scholarship — you make the decision yourself. (Please factor in the cost of a telephone call to the East Coast.)
We do ask you, if you have a full or partial scholarship, to help publicize our Webinar series.
The PayPal button is under the description of the Webinar at http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html
Registration closes Thursday evening January 17. If you wish to pay by PayPal, go to http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html Otherwise, send your check to:
Family Justice Center
470 27th Street
Oakland, CA 94612
To reserve a space in the Webinar, e-mail Shamai at email@example.com and give her this information:
2. The Webinar you wish to attend: “Safety for Ritual Abuse and Mind Control Survivors” on February 19 and/or one of the Webinars listed below
3. Amount and method of payment (check, PayPal, money order)
4. Your preferred e-mail address (so we can send you instructions)
5. The name you will be using for the Webinar. (This does not have to be your real name or your message board screen name.)
Saturday, April 9
12 noon Pacific Time
Staci Sprout, LICSW, CSAT
“Authentic Sexuality after Extreme Sexual Abuse: Part II: Tools You Can Use.”
This Webinar follows up what was begun in the December Webinar. (If you were not there I recommend reviewing it on the Survivorship Website). We will take the concepts of sexual addiction/anorexia in the context of surviving extreme trauma to the next practical level: how to assess your current sexual health today, how to organize daily nurturing tasks to improve sexual self-esteem, what is the role of making love with yourself/masturbation, and what are your visions for a healthy tomorrow?
We will discuss sexuality in both general and specific terms.
Staci Sprout works as an individual group psychotherapist at Sexual Recovery Services in Washington state. (See www.sexualrecoveryservices.com for more information.). She is a Certified Sexual Addiction Therapist (CSAT). She is also a survivor of extreme trauma and will share “what’s worked” along her personal journey of recovery as part of the presentation. Caution will be taken to promote safety by not using explicit language or stories, though content at times may be triggering for survivors.
Saturday, May 21
Note: This Webinar will be at 9 AM Pacific Time
“Attachment: How Did It Harm You, and How Can That Harm Be Healed?”
This Webinar will look at abuse and torture (at all ages) in the context of attachment theory. It will explain that the worst damage caused by abuse is not to the body, but to the victim’s attachment system; and that the damaged attachment system continues to cause destruction in the person’s life, sometimes forever. We’ll then look at healing the attachment system.
Adah Sachs is an attachment-based psychoanalytic psychotherapist. She is a visiting faculty and a training supervisor at the Bowlby Centre and at the Centre for Child Mental Health and a consultant psychotherapist at the Clinic for Dissociative Studies, London. She lectures and publishes widely on trauma and dissociation and maintains a small private practice. Her co-edited book, “Forensic Aspects of DID,” was published in 2008.
Survivorship members may listen to past Webinars for free in the members’ section. (For information on joining Survivorship, go to http://www.survivorship.org/about/membership.html
Complete details on all our Webinars are at http://www.survivorship.org/webinars.html
December 23, 2010 Comments Off on Pope’s comments on clerical abuse stir fury in victims
By MOLLY MULDOON IrishCentral.com Staff Writer December 22, 2010
Clerical abuse victims around the world have reacted in fury to Pope Benedict’s claim yesterday that as recently as the 1970s pedophilia wasn’t considered an “absolute evil”.
During his traditional Christmas address last Monday to cardinals and other religious officials in Rome, Pope Benedict XVI also said that child pornography was considered “normal” by society.
“In the 1970s, paedophilia was theorised as something fully in conformity with man and even with children,” the Pope said. “It was maintained — even within the realm of Catholic theology — that there is no such thing as evil in itself or good in itself. There is only a ‘better than’ and a ‘worse than’. Nothing is good or bad in itself.”
He added that clerical abuse allegations in the past year reached “an unimaginable dimension” which has required the Catholic church to accept the “humiliation”….”We cannot remain silent about the context of these times in which these events have come to light,” he said, citing the growth of child pornography “that seems in some way to be considered more and more normal by society,” he said.
December 9, 2010 Comments Off on 57 men charged in international child porn ring
57 men charged in international child porn ring Dec. 8, 2010
“He said there was “hundred of thousands, if not millions, of images.”
Twenty-five Canadians are among 57 men arrested after authorities shut down an international child-porn network , Toronto police announced Wednesday.
Twenty-five children were rescued, 12 of whom are from Canada, in the year-long investigation into the online trading of child pornography.
Det. Paul Krawczyk, from the child exploitation section of Toronto Police’s Sex Crimes Unit, said 57 people including 25 Canadians were arrested on charges of child pornography as part of a massive investigation known as Project Sanctuary.
A total of 218 charges were laid, ranging from making, possessing and distributing child pornography to luring a child under the age of 16 and sexual assault….
Krawczyk would not discuss the undercover operation beyond saying the suspects were connected by the way they shared the images online. He said there was “hundred of thousands, if not millions, of images.” Police said some the images showed children in their infancy. “There was a lot of very young child pornography,” Det. Const. Janelle Blackadar of the Toronto Police Sex Crimes Unit told CTV Toronto. “By young, I mean, infant, toddler abuse….”
Over the past year, 26 U.S. men have been arrested on 56 charges, 25 Canadian men have been arrested and face 131 charges and six European men have been arrested and face 13 charges.
The Canadian men who have been charged range from 20 to 68 years of age. They face a total of 131 charges after the execution of 31 search warrants across the country.