Risks of harm from spanking confirmed by analysis of 5 decades of research

April 27, 2016 Comments Off on Risks of harm from spanking confirmed by analysis of 5 decades of research

Risks of harm from spanking confirmed by analysis of 5 decades of research
Date: April 25, 2016
Source: University of Texas at Austin

Summary: The more children are spanked, the more likely they are to defy their parents and to experience increased anti-social behavior, aggression, mental health problems and cognitive difficulties, according to a new meta-analysis of 50 years of research on spanking.

The more children are spanked, the more likely they are to defy their parents and to experience increased anti-social behavior, aggression, mental health problems and cognitive difficulties, according to a new meta-analysis of 50 years of research on spanking by experts at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Michigan.

The study, published in this month’s Journal of Family Psychology, looks at five decades of research involving over 160,000 children. The researchers say it is the most complete analysis to date of the outcomes associated with spanking, and more specific to the effects of spanking alone than previous papers, which included other types of physical punishment in their analyses.

“Our analysis focuses on what most Americans would recognize as spanking and not on potentially abusive behaviors,” says Elizabeth Gershoff, an associate professor of human development and family sciences at The University of Texas at Austin. “We found that spanking was associated with unintended detrimental outcomes and was not associated with more immediate or long-term compliance, which are parents’ intended outcomes when they discipline their children.”

Gershoff and co-author Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, an associate professor at the University of Michigan School of Social Work, found that spanking (defined as an open-handed hit on the behind or extremities) was significantly linked with 13 of the 17 outcomes they examined, all in the direction of detrimental outcomes.

“The upshot of the study is that spanking increases the likelihood of a wide variety of undesired outcomes for children. Spanking thus does the opposite of what parents usually want it to do,” Grogan-Kaylor says.

Gershoff and Grogan-Kaylor tested for some long-term effects among adults who were spanked as children. The more they were spanked, the more likely they were to exhibit anti-social behavior and to experience mental health problems. They were also more likely to support physical punishment for their own children, which highlights one of the key ways that attitudes toward physical punishment are passed from generation to generation.

The researchers looked at a wide range of studies and noted that spanking was associated with negative outcomes consistently and across all types of studies, including those using the strongest methodologies such as longitudinal or experimental designs. As many as 80 percent of parents around the world spank their children, according to a 2014 UNICEF report. Gershoff notes that this persistence of spanking is in spite of the fact that there is no clear evidence of positive effects from spanking and ample evidence that it poses a risk of harm to children’s behavior and development.

Both spanking and physical abuse were associated with the same detrimental child outcomes in the same direction and nearly the same strength.

“We as a society think of spanking and physical abuse as distinct behaviors,” she says. “Yet our research shows that spanking is linked with the same negative child outcomes as abuse, just to a slightly lesser degree.”
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160425143106.htm

Risks of Harm from Spanking Confirmed by Analysis of Five Decades of Research   April 25, 2016
http://news.utexas.edu/2016/04/25/risks-of-harm-from-spanking-confirmed-by-researchers

Spanking and Child Outcomes: Old Controversies and New Meta-Analyses.
Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew
Journal of Family Psychology, Apr 7, 2016

Whether spanking is helpful or harmful to children continues to be the source of considerable debate among both researchers and the public. This article addresses 2 persistent issues, namely whether effect sizes for spanking are distinct from those for physical abuse, and whether effect sizes for spanking are robust to study design differences. Meta-analyses focused specifically on spanking were conducted on a total of 111 unique effect sizes representing 160,927 children. Thirteen of 17 mean effect sizes were significantly different from zero and all indicated a link between spanking and increased risk for detrimental child outcomes. Effect sizes did not substantially differ between spanking and physical abuse or by study design characteristics.
http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/fam0000191

 

The Enslaved Queen: A Memoir about Electricity and Mind Control, Physical Punishment and Mental Disorders: Results From a Nationally Representative US Sample

September 18, 2014 Comments Off on The Enslaved Queen: A Memoir about Electricity and Mind Control, Physical Punishment and Mental Disorders: Results From a Nationally Representative US Sample

The Enslaved Queen: A Memoir about Electricity and Mind Control
Author: Wendy Hoffman

Written by a survivor of mind control and ritual abuse who is also a therapist, this memoir exposes the existence and practices of organized criminal groups who abuse children, helps survivors of those abuses, and provides important information for professionals about the dissociative brain. The author’s poetic prose contrasts with the horror of the subject matter.

The adult journeys back to give voice to infant and child parts of her, describing her handlers’ early interventions to destroy bonding and create dissociation, the foundation of reverse-Kabbalah suicide and pathway programming, and the installation of mind control. Scenes from ordinary life are interspersed throughout the memoir. Nazi post-war recruitment of American subjects during the 1940s and 50s (including the infamous Dr. Mengele), children used for prostitution, pornography and the drug trade along with the workings of the Illuminati leadership and their international Feast of the Beast rituals are all included.

The memoir also covers attempts at recovery, experiences with cult therapists in disguise and finally the author’s work with an honest, competent therapist, which led to healing and her brain melding together. The ending acknowledges spiritual experiences, the power of love, the memory process, and thoughts on living and surviving a life such as hers.

Publisher: Karnac Books 2014  ISBN 10 : 1782201483
http://www.karnacbooks.com/Product.asp?PID=35443

Physical Punishment and Mental Disorders: Results From a Nationally Representative US Sample
Tracie O. Afifi, PhD, Natalie P. Mota, MA, Patricia Dasiewicz, MS, Harriet L. MacMillan, MD, FRCPC, and Jitender Sareen, MD, FRCPC

….harsh physical punishment (ie, pushing, grabbing, shoving, slapping, hitting)
….RESULTS: Harsh physical punishment was associated with increased odds of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, and several personality disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and family history of dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio: 1.36–2.46). Approximately 2% to 5% of Axis I disorders and 4% to 7% of Axis II disorders were attributable to harsh physical punishment.

CONCLUSIONS: Harsh physical punishment in the absence of child maltreatment is associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse/dependence, and personality disorders in a general population sample. These findings inform the ongoing debate around the use of physical punishment and provide evidence that harsh physical punishment independent of child maltreatment is related to mental disorders.
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2012/06/27/peds.2011-2947

full text
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2012/06/27/peds.2011-2947.full.pdf

Evidence on rampant violence against children worldwide: Hidden in plain sight, Federal Appeals Court Rejects Yeshiva Sex Abuse Lawsuit

September 5, 2014 Comments Off on Evidence on rampant violence against children worldwide: Hidden in plain sight, Federal Appeals Court Rejects Yeshiva Sex Abuse Lawsuit

“But violence is not inevitable; it can be prevented.”

Evidence on rampant violence against children ‘compels us to act’ – UNICEF report
4 September 2014 – Violence against children is universal – so prevalent and deeply ingrained in societies it is often unseen and accepted as the norm – according to new, unprecedented data presented by the United Nations today.

A new UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) report, Hidden in plain sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children, draws on data from 190 countries in order to shed light on a largely undocumented issue.

The report found that about two thirds of children worldwide between ages 2 and 14 (almost 1 billion) are subjected to physical punishment by their caregivers on a regular basis. And yet, only about one third of adults worldwide believe that physical punishment of some kind is necessary to properly raise or educate a child….

The data includes new figures on violent discipline – the most common form of violence against children as well as violence against girls – widespread rates of physical and sexual abuse. It also takes a look at homicide rates – a leading cause of death among adolescent boys.

In fact, one fifth of homicide victims globally are children and adolescents under the age of 20, resulting in about 95,000 deaths in 2012, and slightly more than 1 in 3 students between the ages of 13 and 15 worldwide are regularly bullied in school.

“Violence begets violence. We know a child experiencing abuse is more likely to see violence as normal, even acceptable and more likely to perpetuate violence against his or her own children in the future,” UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake said.

Perceptions on violence including shocking figures on children’s views and reluctance to report abuse was also reported. Hence, changing attitudes with respect to violence against children starts with knowledge. The report is an opportunity to go into the public domain, and say “now you have to do something,” noted Ms. Bissell….

The effects of violence against children can last a lifetime, as exposure to violence can alter a child’s brain development damaging their physical, mental and emotional health. Violence is also passed down from one generation to the next. But violence is not inevitable; it can be prevented…. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=48639#.VAkiohYXMoE


New global data expose acute prevalence of violence against children: UNICEF

Major findings include:

• Sexual violence: Around 120 million girls under the age of 20 worldwide (about 1 in 10) have experienced forced intercourse or other forced sexual acts, and one in 3 ever-married adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 (84 million) have been victims of emotional, physical or sexual violence committed by their husbands or partners….

• Homicide: One fifth of homicide victims globally are children and adolescents under the age of 20, resulting in about 95,000 deaths in 2012…Among countries in Western Europe and North America, the United States has the highest homicide rate.

• Bullying: Slightly more than 1 in 3 students between the ages of 13 and 15 worldwide are regularly bullied in school….

• Violent discipline: About 17 per cent of children in 58 countries are subject to severe forms of physical punishment (hitting on the head, ears or face or hitting hard and repeatedly)….

• Attitudes towards violence: Close to half of all adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 (around 126 million) believe a husband is justified in hitting his wife under certain circumstances….Data from 30 countries suggest that about seven in 10 girls 15-19 years old who had been victims of physical and/or sexual abuse had never sought help: many said they did not think it was abuse or did not see it as a problem. http://www.unicef.org/media/media_75530.html

#ENDviolence against children http://www.unicef.org/endviolence/

Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis of violence against children http://www.unicef.org/publications/index_74865.html http://goo.gl/wY9zzd

Federal Appeals Court Rejects Yeshiva Sex Abuse Lawsuit
September 4, 2014
NEW YORK (CBSNewYork/AP) – A New York court has tossed out a $380 million lawsuit claiming at least 34 ex-students of Yeshiva University High School for Boys were abused, some sexually, from 1971 to 1992.

The 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said Thursday the statute of limitations had expired. It said the plaintiffs had enough information to take action decades ago.

The lawsuit claimed administrators ignored abuse complaints and said they only learned of an alleged school cover-up in 2012.

The plaintiffs’ attorney Kevin Mulhearn promised to appeal, calling the ruling “intellectually and morally bankrupt.”

The school called the case “trying for all involved.” It said its confidential counseling services remain available for anyone who was harmed….

In the lawsuit, one alleged victim claimed administrators offered him a deaf ear when he said a Judaic studies teacher had sodomized him with a toothbrush, according to a New York Daily News report.

The lawsuit said Finkelstein also targeted children of Holocaust survivors, and “implored these children not to add to their parents’ suffering by telling them about the assaults.”

Mulhearn said the alleged abuse “caused a lifelong devastating impact to a multitude of boys… http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2014/09/04/federal-appeals-court-rejects-yeshiva-sex-abuse-lawsuit/

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