November 4, 2021 Comments Off on Trauma and Memory – The Science and the Silenced
Trauma and Memory – The Science and the Silenced
Recently a new book was published about the False Memory Movement. Over the years, this movement has been extremely damaging for trauma, rape, child abuse and ritual abuse survivors and their helpers. This movement has used propaganda, bullying, harassment, disinformation and pseudoscientific research to bolster its claims. The False Memory Movement has been used to defend accused and convicted pedophiles, rapists and murderers.
Fortunately there have been many brave therapists, researchers and survivors that have spent years fighting the false memory movement’s pseudoscience, including inaccurate statements denying traumatic amnesia and denying the traumagenic origins of dissociative identity disorder.
This new book “Trauma and Memory – The Science and the Silence” is an excellent resource for those who continue the fight against false memory disinformation. The book consolidates older historic information from Freud’s era and the 1980’s and 1990’s as well as newer research about more recent events.
We highly recommend this book. There is a hard copy and e-book available at the website below. “The abuse of science to silence the abused” by the false memory movement has been exposed once again. https://www.routledge.com/Trauma-and-Memory-The-Science-and-the-Silenced/Sinason-Conway/p/book/9781032044293
Trauma and Memory
The Science and the Silenced
Trauma and Memory will assist mental health experts and professionals, as well as the interested public, in understanding the scientific issues around trauma memory, and how this differs from other areas of memory.
This book provides accounts of the damage caused to psychology and survivors internationally by false memory groups and ideas. It is unequivocally passionate about the truth of trauma memory and exposing the damaging disinformation that can seep into the field. Contributors to this book include leading professionals from the field of criminology, law, psychology and psychotherapy in the UK and USA, along with survivor-professionals who understand only too well the damage such disinformation can cause.
This book is a valuable resource for mental health professionals of all disciplines including those involved with relevant law and public health policy. It will also help survivors and survivor-professionals in gaining insight into the forces resisting disclosure.
Valerie Sinason, PhD, is a widely published Writer and Psychoanalyst. She has pioneered disability and trauma-informed therapy for over 30 years, is President of the Institute of Psychotherapy and Disability, Founder and Patron of the Clinic for Dissociative Studies and on the Board of the ISSTD.
Ashley Conway, PhD, AFBPsS, is a Counselling Psychologist. He has worked in a wide range of fields of trauma, ranging through severe critical incidents to long term abuse, and has published widely in these areas. He is currently the Chair of the Clinic for Dissociative Studies in London, UK.
ISBN: 978-1-032-04432-3 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-032-04429-3 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-1-003-19315-9 (ebk) DOI: 10.4324/9781003193159
1 In conversation with Ross Cheit ASHLEY CONWAY
2 False memory syndrome movement: The origins and the promoters MARJORIE ORR
3 The rocky road to false memories: Stories the media missed LYNN CROOK
4 Re-examining the “Lost in the Mall”: study Were “false memories” created to promote a false defence? In conversation with Ruth Blizard VALERIE SINASON
5 Evaluating false memory research WINJA BUSS
6 The abuse of science to silence the abused ASHLEY CONWAY
7 False memory syndrome SUSIE ORBACH
8 Trauma, skin: memory, speech ANN SCOTT
9 Sigmund Freud’s concept of repression: Historical and empirical perspectives BRETT KAHR
10 Terror in the consulting room – memory, trauma and dissociation PHIL MOLLON
11 How can we remember but be unable to recall? The complex functions of multi-modular memory MARY SUE MOORE
12 What if I should die? JENNIFER JOHNS
13 Finding a new narrative: Meaningful responses to “false memory” disinformation MICHAEL SALTER
14 “Do no harm”? KHADIJA ROUF AND DANNY TAGGART Excerpts: page 1 The FMS model provided an explanation for the beginning of the exposure of the scale of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) worldwide, and it enabled the awful truth to be displaced. The multitude of stories of abuse that were beginning to be made public could be explained away – they could be blamed on the therapists who were hearing their clients’ histories.
As long as truth struggles with power, there will be offshoots of such models of displacement and the history of denial goes far back. The FMS may have gone off-grid for now, but it is simply another move in the theories of denial of abuse, and more efforts to silence the truth will follow. The principles remain the same.
The account of Cassandra tragically fits Jennifer Freyd’s concept of DARVO (Freyd, 1997). DARVO stands for Deny, Attack, and Reverse Victim and Offender. This is the common response of a person or an institution that will not accept responsibility and accountability for the violations they have caused.
Jennifer Freyd regarding her parents (FMSF founders):….The grandparents had an affair which culminated after 11 years in marriage, at which time Pamela and Peter Freyd also married aged 18 and 20. Professor Freyd recollected her father speaking openly of his own childhood homosexual liaison as an 11-year-old with a paedophile artist. She remembered being made to dance nude in front of him aged 9 with a friend; of being taught to kiss on the mouth “like an adult” for a school play aged 11 in front of the cast….he continually made sexual comments which were regarded as normal in the family….He drank heavily through her childhood and was hospitalised for alcoholism.
page 26 – 27
Another key figure in the FMS movement is New Zealand doctor, Felicity Goodyear-Smith. Her book First Do No Harm is subtitled “The Sexual Abuse Industry” (Goodyear-Smith, 1993)….The major theme in First Do No Harm is that sexual abuse is a cultural taboo. There is no intrinsic moral objection to adult–child sexual contact and no automatic damage caused by it. Underwager and Wakefield are quoted as the principal references.
Felicity Goodyear-Smith admits to a personal as well as professional involvement in the abuse field. Her husband and parents-in-law were imprisoned for sexual abuse offences, having been members of a New Zealand community, CentrePoint, which encouraged sexual intimacy amongst its members, including the children.
The author quotes studies that purport to show that adult–child sex can be harmless. Under a section on “Children’s Sexual Rights” she describes groups, such as the Paedophile Information Exchange, the Rene Guyon Society (“sex by eight, or it’s too late”), and the North American Man/Boy Love Association, as “holding radical beliefs regarding children’s sexual rights”.
Some have suggested the media’s failure to challenge the false memory scenario reflected a need to deny the scale of the sexual abuse of children. Perhaps their editors failed to encourage a critical analysis of the story because everyone else was covering it – so it must be true. Some reporters may have failed to question the story because they had been accused of molesting a child. Others may have been protecting someone.
The government’s witnesses included many of the individuals who had appeared in Frontline producer Ofra Bikel’s “The Search for Satan”. In court, their stories did not hold up as well as they had in Bikel’s interviews. Under cross-examination by Peterson’s attorney, Rusty Hardin, Shanley conceded on 8 October 1997 that she could not name any memories that were implanted. The Houston Chronicle headline on 8 October 1998 announced, “Former patient can’t attribute false memories to therapy” (Smith, 1999). On 1 March 1999 the government moved to dismiss the indictment. The national media did not cover the story.
Believing that one had been lost while shopping in childhood is not analogous to remembering sexual abuse. In fact, a large proportion of subjects can be convinced that they were lost in a mall as children, but none could be led to falsely believe they had been administered enemas (Pezdek, Finger & Hodge, 1997).
The first six subjects in the formal mall study failed to develop false memories (Coan, 1993), but those results were never published. In the second iteration of the formal mall study (Loftus & Pickrell, 1995), there is little explicit description of the methods of recruitment of subjects, experimental controls or training of investigators….Most importantly, no evidence is presented that any subjects formed full false memories. Nevertheless, the authors imply that, based on study results, they “are providing an ‘existence proof’ for the phenomenon of false memory formation” (pp. 723–4).
Rather, most false memory studies attempt to suggest to subjects that they experienced much more commonplace events, such as getting lost, spilling a bowl of punch, going for a balloon ride, or getting sick after eating eggs. It may be profitable to wonder whether many of the false memory researchers have been swept up in the FMSF campaign to exonerate parents who claim they have been falsely accused.
Other researchers and authors attempting to criticise false memory studies may have been intimidated. Between 1992 and 2017, nearly two dozen psychologists, psychiatrists, attorneys, authors, researchers, journalists, and abuse survivors have been subjected to ad hominem attacks by Loftus (Crook, personal communication, 2019). Those defamed include Ellen Bass, E. Sue Blume, Martha Dean, Laura Brown, Mary Harvey, Jim Coan’s mother, Judith Herman, David Calof, Kenneth Pope, David Corwin, Diana Russell, Lynn Crook, Lenore Walker, Laura Davis, Charles Whitfield, B. J. Levy, Neil Brick, Karen Olio, Bessel van der Kolk, Holly Ramona, Nicole Taus Kluemper and Gerald Koocher.
Many academics may be equally motivated to deny the existence of child abuse as was Freud. Those who gain considerable income from testifying in defence of accused perpetrators, as have Underwager, Gardner and Loftus, may have additional motivation for claiming that abuse accusations were fabricated.
Careful analysis of the research shows it is not easy to implant false memories of childhood abuse. False memories with autobiographical belief, recollective experiences and confidence in memory are rare to non-existent.
The false memory syndrome (FMS) advocates do not want evidence of false negatives – that we can experience something and then be persuaded that it did not happen, because that would not suit their narrative.
….There is no evidence that anyone has ever had a false belief implanted that they were sexually abused as a child.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is the most severe of all dissociative disorders, and its features include recurrent amnesia. Recent research (Reinders et al., 2019) has demonstrated that individuals with DID can be distinguished from healthy controls on the basis of abnormal brain morphology.
….“Every single scientific study of memory of childhood sexual abuse, whether prospective or retrospective, whether studying clinical samples or general population samples, finds that a certain percentage of sexually abused individuals forget, and later remember, their abuse” (Van der Kolk, 2014, note on p. 398 re. p. 190).
As McMaugh and Middleton (2020) state, “the ‘false memory’ movement enabled society to ignore a whole new generation of abused children”.
Merchants of Doubt (Oreskes & Conway, 2010) is an informative book written to describe how vested interests have manipulated the media, to mislead and confuse in areas of great importance to society, including smoking, acid rain and climate change….they create an institute, with scientific advisors who can use their credentials to present themselves as authorities. The advisors cherry-pick data to advance a position, present ideas as if they were facts and use their authority to try to discredit any science they do not like. They use the mass media, making simplified, dramatic statements to capture public attention and draw in journalists to give their minority views more credence than they deserve. They then use these press stories, quoting them as if they were facts. If there is an individual whose opinions are contradictory to the desired line, ad hominem attacks are an option.
Sigmund Freud also realised that repressions could be lifted as a result of psychoanalytical treatment. In his essay on “Trauer und Melancholie” (Freud, 1917a), better known in English as “Mourning and Melancholia” (Freud, 1917b), he observed that the clinical process of psychoanalysis will frequently activate memories, and, that after treatment has progressed satisfactorily, repressed and unconscious memories will eventually return to the fore of consciousness, no longer subject to the disguise of repression.
Nevertheless, Erdelyi’s data does most certainly substantiate Freud’s claim that repressed material can return to consciousness, simply as a result of talking….Astonishingly, 38% of the sample of 129 women did not report the abuse, which Williams and colleagues knew, on the basis of hospital records, had, in fact, occurred.
Survivor accounts, combined with scientific advances in the understanding of trauma, are creating enriched understandings of how abuse can injure the usual process of memory and psychological functioning. Time is yielding an opportunity to reshape public understandings of trauma and its aftermath. This could lead to the correcting of harmful narratives which have led to unethical treatment of survivors, through denial, victim-blaming, or “othering”.
False Memory Syndrome at 30 – Flawed Science, Scientific Evidence for Dissociative Amnesia,- Michael Salter – Organized Abuse, Evan Rachel Wood accuses Marilyn Manson of abuse,- Paedophile Karl Sabbagh jailed for grooming child (False Memory Proponent), Survivorship 2021 Winter Journal and May Conference
February 12, 2021 Comments Off on False Memory Syndrome at 30 – Flawed Science, Scientific Evidence for Dissociative Amnesia,- Michael Salter – Organized Abuse, Evan Rachel Wood accuses Marilyn Manson of abuse,- Paedophile Karl Sabbagh jailed for grooming child (False Memory Proponent), Survivorship 2021 Winter Journal and May Conference
– The False Memory Syndrome at 30: How Flawed Science Turned into Conventional Wisdom
The Scientific Evidence for Dissociative Amnesia
– Michael Salter – Organized Abuse– Evan Rachel Wood accuses Marilyn Manson of abuse
– Paedophile Karl Sabbagh, author and film maker, jailed for grooming child (False Memory Proponent)
– Survivorship Notes and Journal – 2021 Winter Journal
– Survivorship Online Conference – May 21 – 23, 2021
The False Memory Syndrome at 30: How Flawed Science Turned into Conventional Wisdom
The false memory syndrome stands in direct scientific opposition to the wealth of evidence supporting dissociative amnesia—a psychological defense mechanism which, according to trauma therapists, enables people to split off painful events from conscious awareness for years….
Moreover, the broad acceptance of the false memory syndrome in the cultural ecosystem can end up silencing, or even shaming, people like Jennifer Freyd, who believe that they have stumbled upon painful experiences in their childhood and seek to understand the truth about their own past and its connection to their current feelings. In addition, in the courtroom, the Freyds’ view of memory can serve as a protective shield for those who have, in fact, sexually abused children…
Another problematic flaw with the mall study is its laboratory setting. “Loftus is not a clinician and never studied how people process traumatic experiences,” said psychiatrist Bessel van der Kolk. “Trauma often overwhelms the central nervous system, so the brain may not be able to register it fully when it happens. That’s why delayed memories of abuse are not uncommon.”
Finally, critics have pointed out that the study is riddled with methodological flaws and lapses in its reporting of results. For example, in “Lost in the Mall: False Memory or False Defense,” published in 2019 in The Journal of Child Custody, psychologists Ruth Blizzard and Morgan Shaw reported that Loftus tossed out six subjects who were in her original 1993 study—a move which constitutes a major ethical lapse for an experimental researcher. “The mall study,” they concluded, “has received a minimal amount of critical analysis, regardless of the vague and contradictory reporting of results, failure to report negative results, lack of definition of false memory, and conflation of informal observations with formal research.”…
Loftus was the sole defense witness called in the February 2005 trial of the late Paul Shanley, the so-called “Boston street priest,” who had admitted on several occasions since the late 1970s—to both journalists and to church authorities—that he had abused numerous boys. The 2005 case concerned a Boston area firefighter who claimed that Shanley had raped him on numerous occasions when he was between six and nine years old. The accuser, who was 27 at the time of the trial, testified that he had forgotten about the years of abuse for about 15 years….
The Scientific Evidence for Dissociative Amnesia The flip side to the false memory studies is a large body of research, conducted over the last century, that provides evidence that dissociative amnesia is, in fact, a common reaction to trauma. However, this research has often been ignored in news articles and textbooks that discuss the false memory syndrome. “There are now hundreds of studies in lots of different populations showing that people forget trauma,” said psychiatrist Bessel van der Kolk. “We see it in victims of sexual abuse, natural disaster, torture, rape, war, and kidnapping. And research also shows that delayed memories of abuse are as reliable as continuous memories.” One of the psychologists who has synthesized much of this research on dissociative amnesia has been Jennifer Freyd herself. “I am a memory psychologist, so I needed to make sense of what had happened to me,” she said. In 1996, she published Betrayal Trauma: The Logic of Forgetting Childhood Abuse (1996)—a book published by Harvard University Press, which describes what she has called betrayal trauma theory. “Memory of trauma can be dangerous to children,” she stated, summing up the central argument of her book. “They may need to forget in order to function in important relationships.”….
Evidence for dissociative amnesia has also been gathered by Brown University political scientist Ross Cheit, who reports that he forgot his own sexual abuse at the age of 12 by a camp counselor for decades. In the mid-1990s, he launched the Recovered Memory Project, and he has now gathered 110 corroborated cases of recovered memory. He also has compiled a long list of citations to scholarly articles on dissociative amnesia in various populations such as child abuse victims and Holocaust survivors. Cheit spent a decade writing a book, The Witch-Hunt Narrative: Politics, Psychology and the Sexual Abuse of Children (2014), in which he reviewed the major child abuse cases over the previous 30 years—from the McMartin Preschool case of the 1980s through the priest abuse cases and the Jerry Sandusky case. In it, he documents how there has been a bias in the media against recognizing dissociative amnesia, even though in the clinical world it is well known that “sexual abuse disclosures are often delayed and then disclosed in bits and pieces.”
Organised abuse has been reported by child victims, adult survivors and a range of professionals for over thirty years. However, organised abuse remains poorly understood.
This website has been developed by criminologist Scientia Associate Professor Michael Salter who specialises in the study of organised abuse and complex trauma. The aim of the website is to disseminate reliable information about organised abuse to professionals, victims and survivors.
Scientia Associate Professor Michael Salter
I am the Scientia Associate Professor in Criminology at the University of New South Wales, Australia. I specialise in the study of organised sexual abuse. In addition to my work on complex trauma, I have researched and published widely on violence against women and children.
I sit on the Scientific Advisory Committee and the Board of Directors of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation. I am an Associate Editor of Child Abuse Review, the peer-reviewed journal of the British Association for the Study and Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, and I sit on the editorial board of the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation.
I act as a consultant and trainer to a range of non-government organisations and government departments at the state and national level. I am an expert advisor to the Australian Office of the eSafety Commissioner and the Canadian Centre for Child Protection.
Marilyn Manson: His satanic majesty
Evan Rachel Wood describing the abuse she suffered when she was in a relationship with Marilyn Manson
Evan Rachel Wood accuses Marilyn Manson of abuse
2 February 2021
On Monday, Wood alleged that Manson was her abuser for the first time via a statement posted on her Instagram account.
“The name of my abuser is Brian Warner, also known to the world as Marilyn Manson,” the Westworld actress claimed.
“He started grooming me when I was a teenager and horrifically abused me for years. I was brainwashed and manipulated into submission.”
Remembering our Childhood: How Memory Betrays Us
Print publication date: 2011 Print ISBN-13: 9780199218417 Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2015
Freyds and Feuds Karl Sabbagh
This chapter describes the British False Memory Society (BFMS) and its American equivalent, the False Memory Syndrome Foundation (FMSF). These organizations are made up of parents who had been accused of abuse — they would say falsely — by one of their children.
Paedophile Karl Sabbagh, author and film maker, jailed for grooming child
By Will Walker
27th September 2019
A RENOWNED author and filmmaker was secretly a depraved paedophile who preyed on a ‘vulnerable’ child before grooming her.
Predator Karl Sabbagh began talking to his 14-year-old victim about films and literature but the conversation soon moved on to him sending videos of himself performing sex acts.
The 77-year-old pervert of Crab Tree Close, Bloxham, went on to ask the child to ‘stop shaving her pubic hair’ and later sent her a vibrator in the post….”He sent a video of himself masturbating, there was talk of meeting her.”….
Sentencing, Judge Peter Ross, jailed Sabbagh for 45 months and ordered that he sign the sex offenders register for life.
Survivorship Notes and Journal
2021 Winter Journal
Institutional Child Abuse – Annika Lundin and Randy Noblitt
Boulspo, 2016 – Wendy Hoffman
My Personal Experience – Victoria Skye
Whitman’s Samplers on the dining room table – Forest Hills, 1940s – Wendy Hoffman
Now and Then – Victoria Skye
Survivorship Online Conference – May 21 – 23, 2021 “
Being a survivor/clinician in a changing world” https://survivorship.org/the-survivorship-ritual-abuse-and-mind-control-2021-conference/
Survivorship is one of the oldest and most respected organizations supporting survivors of extreme child abuse, including sadistic sexual abuse, ritualistic abuse, mind control, and torture. Survivorship provides resources, healing, and community for survivors; training and education for professionals who may serve survivors; and support for survivors’ partners and other allies. The organization functions as a lifeline for survivors who may be isolated emotionally or geographically. Through community outreach and training, Survivorship also raises awareness about these difficult issues.
One Hundred Children: A Parable for Healing from Dissociation-savvy Mind Control Presenter: Ellen Lacter, Ph.D.
Production of Sadistic Child abuse Materials: Psychology of the Victims and Perpetrators Presenter: Ellen Lacter, Ph.D.
Self-Esteem Presenter: Wendy Hoffman
Mind Control and How to Stop it. Presenter: Neil Brick
‘Cult-like’ Ashram Guru Sexually Abused Children, Australian cult – The Family, Web Pages on Child Abuse, Ritual Abuse and Mind Control
April 6, 2017 Comments Off on ‘Cult-like’ Ashram Guru Sexually Abused Children, Australian cult – The Family, Web Pages on Child Abuse, Ritual Abuse and Mind Control
‘My upbringing broke me’: Disturbing insider account reveals life growing up in ‘cult-like’ yoga ashram where a self-styled guru sexually abused and humiliated children
The woman, who did not give her real name, lived at the ashram from age four
She was isolated from her mother when she lived there in the 70s and 80s
And children were punished for the smallest infractions, she revealed
The woman said her childhood left her broken and unable to hold down a job
By Khaleda Rahman For Daily Mail Australia
4 April 2017
A woman who was raised inside a notorious ‘cult-like’ yoga ashram has revealed horrific details of her traumatic childhood.
The woman, identified only as Sandra although that is not her real name, opened up about how her upbringing inside the Satyananda Ashram – now known as Mangrove Yoga Ashram – left her broken in a heart-breaking piece published on news.com.au.
The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse found children in the ashram – located in the foothills of Mangrove Mountain on the NSW central coast were raped, sexually assaulted and threatened with violence….
Sandra said she was forced to live in the ashram by her by her mother, who was attracted to the alternative lifestyle.
Once she got there though, she was isolated from her mother as renouncing family members and ‘worshipping’ the guru only was one of the ashram’s rules….
She says children were punished for the smallest things, like talking on the bus ride from school, had their heads flushed in the public toilets for not brushing their teeth, and were beaten in public is they said anything negative about the guru.
Sandra also revealed how at times, women and girls were forced to bathe in the creek where the water was below freezing, instead of taking hot showers like the men.
She said she didn’t cope with the tough conditions – and began taking drugs at 14 and was in a self-induced coma for three days when she was 16….
As an adult, she says she went from one abusive relationship to another – and ended up having a child with a physically abusive paedophile. Since discovering the latter fact, Sandra says she moved her two children away. She and her family have been in hiding ever since….
Last year, the royal commission found Satyananda Ashram was insensitive and defensive in its handling of abuse complaints from the 1970s and 1980s against its former spiritual leader Swami Akhandananda Saraswati.
The commission released its report into the ashram in September and revealed a culture of ‘violence and humiliation’ prevented victims from reporting the abuse – and some were even threatened with murder.
Ten women and one man gave evidence saying they had been sexually abused by him as children at the ashram.
Children as young as four were physically abused by Akhandananda or his former partner Shishy, former residents of the ashram reported.
The abuse ranged from slaps to repeated striking with heavy objects and forms of discipline included hard labour, starvation and humiliation through public nudity.
One victim said she was stripped, held down and had the skin between her breasts cut at the age of seven in an initiation ceremony – before Akhandananda raped her….
Troubling details of life inside notorious Australian cult The Family have been laid bare
April 3, 2017
….The notorious religious sect, whose leader Anne Hamilton-Byrne proclaimed she was the female reincarnation of Jesus Christ, preached a combination of Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity.
Under the influence of LSD, Hamilton-Byrne claimed she had a vision to collect children and raise them as her family to protect them from the coming global apocalypse.
The family, who represented a “master race”, would then educate the world after Armageddon.
Twenty eight children were allegedly taken and raised by the cult and dressed identically and had their hair bleached blond.
A number of professionals, including doctors and lawyers joined the cult under Hamilton-Byrne.
As the cult continued through the 1970s and 1980s, it was hit with allegations of child abuse.
Children who grew up in the cult were the subject of a documentary released last year which premiered at the Melbourne International Film Festival.
Now a book, The Family, written by Rosie Jones and Chris Johnston exposes what life was like within the sect, The Mirror reports.
The book includes testimonies from ex-followers of the sect and police involved in investigating it….
An extract from the book reads:
“The monotony would suddenly be broken by wild outbursts of punishment and violent anger.
“The children never knew exactly how to escape punishment because the rules changed all the time….
“Compliance and silence became important to them, to save themselves.
“They learned to be helpless, while all the adults had absolute power.”
Allegations surrounding the cult include strict discipline that included beatings and a lack of food.
The children were reportedly denied access to the outside world and allegedly doped up with psychiatric drugs including LSD…..
Webpages on Child Abuse, Ritual Abuse and Mind Control
Exposing Doug Mesner/Lucien Greaves – co-founder of the Satanic Temple and Grey Faction presenter
The Urban Legends of Those Attacking Ritual Abuse Theories and the False Logic of False Memory Proponents and Their Occultist Supporters
The Urban Legends of Those Attacking Ritual Abuse Theories and the False Logic of False Memory Proponents and Their Occultist Supporters – Presentation at the 2016 Annual Ritual Abuse, Secretive Organizations and Mind Control Conference
Second half of the article discusses the Grey Faction, a part of the Satanic Temple and Lucien Greaves/Doug Mesner.
Information on Ellen Lacter and Her Research
Information on Valerie Sinason and Her Research
Information on Randy Noblitt and His Research
Information about Alison Miller and Her Research
Information on Neil Brick and his research
Information on Neil Brick
Scale of sexual abuse in UK universities, Grenville Christian College/Community of Jesus, Ritual Abuse and Mind Control
October 19, 2016 Comments Off on Scale of sexual abuse in UK universities, Grenville Christian College/Community of Jesus, Ritual Abuse and Mind Control
– Scale of sexual abuse in UK universities likened to Savile and Catholic scandals
– Former Christian school headmaster’s son charged with sexual assault
– Ritual Abuse and Mind Control
Former Christian school headmaster’s son charged with sexual assault
Eric Andrew-Gee The Globe and Mail Friday, Oct. 07, 2016
The son of a former headmaster of an Ontario Christian school that was closed in 2007 amid accusations of abuse and cult-like practices has been charged with sexual assault for alleged offences dating back 30 years….
He is the son of Charles Farnsworth, the late headmaster of Grenville Christian College, an elite private school near Brockville that was affiliated with the Community of Jesus, a controversial U.S. religious sect often described as a cult. Grenville closed in 2007 after 38 years in operation, citing declining enrolment and rising operating costs.
The closing coincided with a growing chorus of alumni accusing the school of chronic abuse and bizarre religious rites. A $225-million class action lawsuit filed in 2008 alleges former students were “sexually, physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually traumatized” by their time at the school. The suit is ongoing….
Former students have described a climate of intense sexual repression in which women suspected of immoral behaviour were described as “Jezebels” and “bitches in heat,” and romantic relationships between students were discouraged and brutally policed.
Extreme physical punishment was common for students who ran afoul of the school’s stringent rules, a 2007 Globe investigation found….
Scale of sexual abuse in UK universities likened to Savile and Catholic scandals
Stories of more than 100 women shared with Guardian expose pattern of harassment which remains largely hidden
Sally Weale and David Batty Friday 7 October 2016
The scale of sexual harassment and gender violence by UK university staff has been likened to the scandals involving the Catholic church and Jimmy Savile in accounts shared by more than 100 women with the Guardian.
Their stories – including those of verbal bullying, serial harassment, assault, sexual assault and rape – expose an alarming pattern of abuse and harassment in British universities which remains largely hidden….
Many women said they had not pursued complaints for fear of jeopardising their academic careers. Those who did complain said they felt isolated and unprotected, while the more powerful men they accused appeared to be untouchable.
The women’s accounts follow an exclusive Guardian report on the use of non-disclosure agreements in university sexual harassment cases….
Later this month Universities UK (UUK) is publishing its long awaited report on sexual violence and harassment in universities, but there is concern that it will focus on “lad culture” and incidents between students, rather than those involving staff and students, which have remained largely under the radar.
The majority of cases reported to the Guardian involve senior male academics, often professors, harassing and abusing younger female PhD students whose work they supervise. There are also accounts from undergraduates and female academics, while a small number of other allegations involve assault, male-on-male harassment and one allegation of sexual assault by a female lecturer.
Many of the accounts indicate that universities are failing in their duty of care to students and staff who are harassed. One female academic who made a complaint of sexual harassment against a more senior male colleague – against whom there had been previous complaints – said she was marched off the university premises and suspended for three months after he accused her of making a false allegation….
In another statement, a PhD student, who brought a complaint after being raped by a senior member of staff with whom she was in a relationship, described her sense of utter powerlessness: “He is a renowned professor. He can do what he wants.”….
Becoming Yourself: Overcoming Mind Control and Ritual Abuse by Alison Miller
Becoming Yourself: Overcoming Mind Control and Ritual Abuse – part 1 – YouTube http://bit.ly/2cB7ZUv
Becoming Yourself: Overcoming Mind Control and Ritual Abuse – part 2 – YouTube http://bit.ly/2cV9B85
In contrast to the author’s previous book, Healing the Unimaginable: Treating Ritual Abuse and Mind Control, which was for therapists, this book is designed for survivors of these abuses.
It takes the survivor systematically through understanding the abuses and how his or her symptoms may be consequences of these abuses, and gives practical advice regarding how a survivor can achieve stability and manage the life issues with which he or she may have difficulty.
The book also teaches the survivor how to work with his or her complex personality system and with the traumatic memories, to heal the wounds created by the abuse.
A unique feature of this book is that it addresses the reader as if he or she is dissociative, and directs some information and exercises towards the internal leaders of the personality system, teaching them how to build a cooperative and healing inner community within which information is shared, each part’s needs are met, and traumatic memories can be worked through successfully.
Self-Esteem Loosens Mind Control by Wendy Hoffman – Survivorship Conference 2016 ttps://survivorship.org/self-esteem-loosens-mind-control-by-wendy-hoffman-survivorship-conference-2016/
Internal Keys to Safety by Alison Miller – Survivorship Conference 2016ttps://survivorship.org/internal-keys-to-safety-by-alison-miller-survivorship-conference-2016/
may be heavy for survivors
Hypnosis in MPD : Ritual Abuse, Greenbaum Speech, Mind Control Programming http://childabusedata.blogspot.com/2016/09/hypnosis-in-mpd-ritual-abuse-greenbaum.html
Hypnosis in MPD: Ritual Abuse. The Greenbaum Speech.
audio recording: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9FUersarZuo
Petition to Stop Attacks Against Child Abuse and Ritual Abuse Survivors and Neil Brickttps://www.change.org/p/protect-child-abuse-survivors-petition-to-stop-attacks-against-child-abuse-and-ritual-abuse-survivors-and-neil-brick
The Power of Story An Interview with Neil Brick – Facing Down Fears http://www.facingdownfears.com/2016/09/power-story-interview-neil-brick/
Child Abuse Research https://ritualabuse.us
Ritual abuse information
by Neil Brick
Information on ritual abuse and child abuse crimes and advocacy to help stop these crimes.
How to Avoid Being Mind Controlled at a Conference by Neil Brick – Presentation at the 2016 Annual Ritual Abuse, Secretive Organizations and Mind Control Conference – August 2016
The information in this article was written with the help and research of several survivors and well-known, well-published therapists in the child abuse, ritual abuse and mind control fields over almost a twenty year period. Participants of several ritual abuse conferences helped research the information in this article.
The Urban Legends of Those Attacking Ritual Abuse Theories and the False Logic of False Memory Proponents and Their Occultist Supporters by Neil Brick
June 5, 2016 Comments Off on It’s easy to implant false childhood memories, right? Wrong, says a new review
It’s easy to implant false childhood memories, right? Wrong, says a new review
During the 1990s, groundbreaking work by psychologists demonstrated that human memory is flexible and vulnerable and that it’s very easy for people to experience “false memories” that feel real, but which are actually a fiction. One major implication of this was in the evaluation of adults’ accounts of how they’d been abused in childhood. In a recent journal editorial, for instance, one of the pioneers of false memory research argued that the same techniques used by therapists to recover repressed memories of abuse have been shown in the lab to “produce false memories in substantial numbers of research participants”.
But there are some experts who believe the false memory researchers have gone too far. Chris Brewin and Bernice Andrews are two British psychologists with these concerns. In their new systematic review in Applied Cognitive Psychology they have taken a hard look at all the evidence, and they argue that we need to rethink the idea that false memories are so easily induced….
Consider one key experimental technique known as “imagination inflation”, which aims to provoke false memories in participants simply by asking them to write about fictitious events as if they had really happened.
As a first step participants are surveyed about a range of things that might happen in a typical childhood, and then they are asked to use their imagination to write about one of these events that they believe didn’t actually happen in their own childhood. After this writing task, participants are asked again to rate how likely it is that they actually experienced this event in their own childhood.
Overall, after completing the imaginative writing task, most people tend to shift their beliefs, to think that it’s more plausible that they may actually have experienced the event they wrote about. But in 13 of 14 the published datasets that Brewin and Andrews reviewed where this technique was used, belief only changed by one point or less on an eight-point scale (from strongly believing it didn’t happen on one end of the scale, to strongly believing it did on the other). As these shifts in belief often weren’t enough to tip participants over the scale’s half-way point, this supposed induction of “false memories” involved the sowing of doubt but not the creation of a new memory – most participants still considered that the events they’d written about hadn’t happen to them, it’s just that they were less confident in that belief….
The most powerful technique used to induce false memories is memory implantation. This approach involves parents and authority figures conniving over multiple sessions to persuade a participant that an event really happened in their childhood, going as far in some cases as doctoring photographs to produce incontrovertible proof. These studies often produce new recollections of some kind – up to 78 per cent of participants report new, false memories when doctored photographs are used – but Brewin and Andrews show that when an even more stringent definition of a false memory is used – that it must involve mental images – then this rate of new recollection drops to 25 per cent, and regarding memories that the participant is actually confident in, to only 15 per cent.
Overwhelmingly, most participants in these studies disbelieve the childhood event ever happened, and they doubt any apparently new memories that arise, despite the pressure to think otherwise. Tellingly, when studies have collected ratings of the strength of any new memories from both the participants and the researchers, the researchers’ ratings are routinely higher. After hearing their parents’ stories, the participants typically become better able to narrate a plausible and even elaborate account that persuades the researcher a memory has been created. But often the participants themselves aren’t buying it, and they can draw the distinction between memory-like content and a true memory.
It’s clear that false memory paradigms can shift how we evaluate past events, and can for a minority of participants provoke memory-like experiences. But the rates are very low and the effects variable, and the one that produces the strongest effect – memory implantation – is also the most invasive, and least likely to match the experiences of people in normal life or within a therapy session. Brewin and Andrews suggest their review “indicates that the majority of participants are resistant to the suggestions they are given” and that the rhetoric that false beliefs are easy to instil should be re-examined.
Creating Memories for False Autobiographical Events in Childhood: A Systematic Review
Brewin, C., & Andrews, B. (2016). Creating Memories for False Autobiographical Events in Childhood: A Systematic Review Applied Cognitive Psychology DOI: 10.1002/acp.3220
Using a framework that distinguishes autobiographical belief, recollective experience, and confidence in memory, we review three major paradigms used to suggest false childhood events to adults: imagination inflation, false feedback and memory implantation. Imagination inflation and false feedback studies increase the belief that a suggested event occurred by a small amount such that events are still thought unlikely to have happened. In memory implantation studies, some recollective experience for the suggested events is induced on average in 47% of participants, but only in 15% are these experiences likely to be rated as full memories.
We conclude that susceptibility to false memories of childhood events appears more limited than has been suggested. The data emphasise the complex judgements involved in distinguishing real from imaginary recollections and caution against accepting investigator-based ratings as necessarily corresponding to participants’ self-reports.
November 6, 2014 Comments Off on False Memory Syndrome: A False Construct
False Memory Syndrome: A False Construct
The term False Memory Syndrome was created in 1992. Research has shown that most delayed memories of childhood abuse are true. In general, it has been shown that false allegations of childhood sexual abuse are rare, with some studies showing rates as low as one percent and some studies showing slightly higher rates. It has been found that children tend to understate rather than overstate the extent of any abuse experienced. http://childabusewiki.org/index.php?title=False_Memory_Syndrome
Dallam, S. J. (2002). Crisis or Creation: A systematic examination of false memory claims. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse,9 (3/4), 9-36. “A review of the relevant literature demonstrates that the existence of such a syndrome lacks general acceptance in the mental health field, and that the construct is based on a series of faulty assumptions, many of which have been scientifically disproven. There is a similar lack of empirical validation for claims of a “false memory” epidemic.” http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/dallam/6.html
Memory, Abuse, and Science: Questioning Claims about the False Memory Syndrome Epidemic
Kenneth S. Pope http://www.kspope.com/memory/memory.php
False Memory Syndrome Facts Website http://fmsf.com/media.html
Memory & FMS https://ritualabuse.us/research/memory-fms/
Recovered Memory Data https://ritualabuse.us/research/memory-fms/recovered-memory-data/
Hall, J., Kondora, L. (2005) “True” and “False” Child Sexual Abuse Memories and Casey’s Phenomenological View of Remembering American Behavioral Scientist, 48, 10 p. 1339-1359 DOI: 10.1177/0002764205277012 “The notion of false accusation is often raised in cases where physical evidence is not available and a period of time has passed or when there has been a delay in recall of the events by a survivor of child sexual abuse. This is not to imply that false memories are not possible. This article outlines how rare they must be, however, based on historical factors and a phenomenological analysis of memory itself….Most scientists investigating traumatic memory doubt that memories of abuse could be planted.”
“The hypothesis that false memories can easily be implanted in psychotherapy…seriously overstates the available data. Since no studies have been conducted on suggested effects in psychotherapy per se, the idea of iatrogenic suggestion of false memories remains an untested hypothesis. Brown, Scheflin and Hammond (1998).” Memory, Trauma Treatment, And the Law” (W. W. Norton) ISBN 0-393-70254-5
False Memory Syndrome : A False Construct by Juliette Cutler Page “The concept of “recovered memory”, that is, memory of a traumatic event that had been forgotten for some period of time, has been variously explained by such mechanisms as repression, amnesia, and dissociation. However, there are over 100 years of reports and descriptions of recovered memory in the literature, including instances from times of war, torture, bereavement, natural disasters, and concentration camp imprisonment. (HOROWITZ) Many corroborated cases have been documented in instances of recovered memory of sexual abuse…”
Ground Lost: The False Memory/Recovered Memory Therapy Debate, by Alan Scheflin, Psychiatric Times 11/99, Vol. XVI Issue 11, “The appearance in the DSM-IV indicates that the concept of repressed memory is generally accepted in the relevant scientific community. This satisfies courts following the Frye v United States, 293 F.1013 (1923) or Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, 113 S. Ct. 2786 (1993) rules regarding the admissibility of scientific testimony into evidence in court.” And “Although the science is limited on this issue, the only three relevant studies conclude that repressed memories are no more and no less accurate than continuous memories (Dalenberg, 1996; Widom and Morris, 1997; Williams, 1995). Thus, courts and therapists should consider repressed memories no differently than they consider ordinary memories.” At http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/p991137.html
The “False Memory” Defense: Using Disinformation and Junk Science in and out of Court
Charles L. Whitfield, M.D., F.A.S.A.M. “This article describes a seemingly sophisticated, but mostly contrived and often erroneous “false memory” defense, and compares it in a brief review to what the science says about the effect of trauma on memory. Child sexual abuse is widespread and dissociative/traumatic amnesia for it is common.” http://web.archive.org/web/20070914163211/http://childabuse.georgiacenter.uga.edu/both/whitfield/whitfield1.phtml
Commonwealth vs. Paul Shanley.
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, decided Jan. 15, 2010
The Leadership Council submitted an amicus brief in to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court advising the court on scientific knowledge regarding dissociative memory loss. On February 7, 2005, Paul Shanley was convicted of sexually abusing a child. The abuse occurred between 1983 and 1989 when the victim was attending classes at the church where the defendant served as a Catholic priest. Shanley appealed his conviction saying that it was based on recovered memory. His defense team contended that “…’repressed memory’ is a pernicious, unreliable, junk science notion without scientific verification.”
The LC submitted a brief explaining why this position regarding scientific acceptance of dissociative memory loss is inaccurate, and why the Court’s determination that testimony on dissociative memory loss and recovery is admissible was correct. The Court affirmed the conviction and held that ” the judge’s finding that the lack of scientific testing did not make unreliable the theory that an individual may experience dissociative amnesia was supported in the record, not only by expert testimony but by a wide collection of clinical observations and a survey of academic literature.”
Silencing the Victim: The Politics of Discrediting Child Abuse Survivors
As a victim of child abuse who proved my claims in a landmark civil suit, there have been many attempts to silence and discredit me. This article provides an overview of my court case and its effects.
DOI: 10.1207/s15327019eb0802_3 Jennifer Hoult pages 125-140
Ralph Underwager….Plaintiffs-Appellants, v. Anna Salter, Et Al., Defendants-Appellees., 22 F.3d 730 (7th Cir. 1994) http://vlex.com/vid/36092881
Media and Information
Originally published in Moving Forward, Volume 3, No. 3, pp 1, 12-21, 1995. The Highly Misleading Truth and Responsibility in Mental Health Practices Act: The “False Memory” Movement’s Remedy for a Nonexistent Problem by Judith M. Simon “Over the past few years, the “false memory” movement has manifested primarily as a media presence that discounts sexual abuse survivors as first-hand witnesses to their own experiences.” http://web.archive.org/web/20050906011329/http://members.aol.com/conch8/antiTRMP1.html
False memory syndrome proponents tactics – False memory syndrome proponents have done the following to try and ensure that only their point of view is in the public view. Harassing debate opponents, misrepresenting the data in the field and controlling the media.
U-Turn on Memory Lane by Mike Stanton – Columbia Journalism Review – July/August 1997
“Rarely has such a strange and little-understood organization had such a profound effect on media coverage of such a controversial matter.” http://web.archive.org/web/20071216011151/http://backissues.cjrarchives.org/year/97/4/memory.asp
Confessions of a Whistle-Blower: Lessons Learned Author: Anna C. Salter DOI: 10.1207/s15327019eb0802_2 Ethics & Behavior, Volume 8, Issue 2 June 1998 , pages 115 – 124
Calof, D.L. (1998). Notes from a practice under siege: Harassment, defamation, and intimidation in the name of science, Ethics and Behavior, 8(2) pp. 161-187. http://ritualabuse.us/research/memory-fms/notes-from-a-practice-under-siege/
Disinformation and DID: the Politics of Memory Brian Moss, MA, MFT
March 12, 2014 Comments Off on The witch-hunt narrative challenged, McMartin Preschool trial, Child abuse/ritual abuse podcasts
Oxford University Press to Publish Book
by Professor Ross Cheit
February 5, 2014
Longtime Taubman professor Ross Cheit will discuss his new book and the contributions of his many undergraduate research assistants….
What is your book about? The witch-hunt narrative claims that there was a series of child sexual abuse cases in the 1980s and 1990s that were hoaxes and that children are highly suggestible when questioned about possible sexual abuse. The idea that children are highly suggestible is still with us, and the people who believe that use these cases as the evidence….
In the book you reference your own experience with sexual abuse at a camp for the San Francisco Boys’ Chorus. How do you avoid bias? The way I’ve designed my research, it forces me to confront the best arguments that support the witch-hunt narrative. The McMartin Preschool case….I knew that case was going to be the most flawed. After spending weeks reviewing the original transcript of the case, I concluded that there were plenty of reasons for jurors to conclude that the original defendant, Ray Buckey, was guilty. The rest of the case was deeply flawed, and I lay that out in my book. The book is documented to the max. I don’t make any claims that aren’t documented….
What are the policy implications of the book? What’s most worrisome to me is that the witch-hunt narrative unfairly impugns children. The ongoing challenge in this field is, if you ask children a series of open-ended questions about the alleged abuse and don’t get anywhere, then what do you do? I think there are people who are too worried about being criticized for asking leading questions or interviewing a child a second time.
What that leads to are abused kids who don’t disclose. I’ve seen almost no concern or acknowledgement of that issue in the psychology literature, but a lot of people are worried about false convictions. There is also a claim that there are economic motives to find abuse and that federal programs create the incentive to find abuse. I think this is completely wrong-headed. I worry that there are political forces that want to weaken the Child Abuse Prevention and Training Act, get rid of mandatory reporting, and undermine the credibility of front-line professionals, from pediatricians to forensic interviewers, who serve and protect children….
Smart-Talks Podcast Blog
This is a collection of talks given at the annual SMART conference in Connecticut. Speakers present to tell their stories of their experiences with ritual abuse and/or mind control, their experiences treating patients with such backgrounds, or to raise awareness of the various issues surrounding recovery from ritual abuse/mind control of efforts made to raise awareness with the general public of this issue.
Castlewood eating disorder lawsuit to be dismissed, Woman killed in human sacrifice ritual in Nalasopara, 6 arrested
December 20, 2013 Comments Off on Castlewood eating disorder lawsuit to be dismissed, Woman killed in human sacrifice ritual in Nalasopara, 6 arrested
Castlewood eating disorder lawsuit to be dismissed
December 16, 2013 By Blythe Bernhard
Two years after Lisa Nasseff accused psychologist Mark Schwartz of implanting her with false memories of sexual abuse and satanic cult activity, her lawsuit against Castlewood Treatment Center and its former director will be dismissed Friday, according to filings in St. Louis County Circuit Court.
Attorneys say Nasseff’s case was resolved favorably for both sides. Few details were available. The case appeared headed for settlement, then last month the court file indicated the case would be dismissed.
Separate lawsuits from three other women with similar claims of brainwashing, hypnosis and concocted memories during their lengthy stays at the eating disorder treatment clinic on the outskirts of Castlewood State Park in Ballwin appear headed to the same conclusion.
But an additional 25 to 30 families across the country who have formed the group Castlewood Victims Unite say the dismissal of the cases and the expected confidentiality agreements are disappointing….
Castlewood staff deny the allegations of brainwashing and say no therapist has ever created false memories or hypnotized clients.
Since the fourth lawsuit was filed by Colette Travers in late 2012, Castlewood has made sweeping changes to its leadership team and public relations strategy….
The decision for Schwartz and Galperin to step down was made by the couple, the Castlewood board of directors and the owners, Trinity Hunt Partners of Dallas, which bought the sprawling treatment center in 2008. At the time of the agency’s $25 million move into behavioral health, Trinity Hunt referred to Schwartz and Galperin as “highly regarded clinicians with extensive experience in treating individuals suffering from eating disorders and psychological trauma.” Their departure is not related to the lawsuits, according to Nancy Albus, who has worked at Castlewood for 10 years and was promoted to CEO a year ago….
“It’s time to really address some of the misperceptions and misrepresentations and show the quality of care we provide,” Albus said in a recent interview inside the spacious home where 16 men and women can live while undergoing intensive therapy for eating disorders. Castlewood’s properties include space for 26 residential clients as well as outpatient services….
Eating disorders have the highest death rate of any mental illness. Some residents of Castlewood are so ill that they require feeding tubes, and others are so weak that they use wheelchairs. Almost all are also dealing with anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. About half of the people who come to Castlewood have been deemed treatment failures by other facilities, according to staff members.
Much of the debate surrounding Castlewood has been its use of a therapy called internal family systems, which involves encouraging patients to improve the parts of themselves that are destructive. Several experts in eating disorders have said internal family systems is not the standard of care because malnourished patients and those on psychotropic drugs are particularly vulnerable to having their memories and personalities twisted.
Jim Gerber, Castlewood’s clinical director, said internal family systems is just one of the options available to residents, and that accessing painful memories is a part of the healing process. People who have compartmentalized memories might need help to access them during therapy, but it’s not a “fishing expedition,” he said.
“We have to deal with a person’s past experience,” Gerber said. “The goal is for a person to come to an understanding of their life to deal with what they struggle with in the present. In no intervention does someone say ‘this happened to you.’”
Several alumni and current residents who agreed to recent interviews at the facility say they credit Castlewood with saving their lives and could not relate to the experiences detailed in the lawsuits.
Woman killed in human sacrifice ritual in Nalasopara, 6 arrested
Sandhya Nair, TNN Dec 15, 2013
MUMBAI: A day after the state assembly passed the anti-superstition bill, a tantrik and five others were arrested by Thane rural police for killing a 50-year-old woman in a human sacrifice ritual….
Satanic Ritual Murder Sentencing Postponed for 2014, Paper Says Lost in the Mall study’s theory and methodology are not reliable under either Frye or Daubert standards
November 13, 2013 Comments Off on Satanic Ritual Murder Sentencing Postponed for 2014, Paper Says Lost in the Mall study’s theory and methodology are not reliable under either Frye or Daubert standards
Satanic Ritual Murder Sentencing Postponed for 2014
By Mara Ispas SA Breaking News – Fri, Nov 8, 2013
Johannesburg – The two men found guilty of the satanic ritual murder of Kirsty Theologo will only be sentenced in February 2014, announced Judge Geraldine Borchers on Friday.
The judge postponed the sentencing because of an operation she was scheduled for, and said she could only continue the trial on 11 February 2014….
Wagner and Harwood reportedly killed Theologo because they wanted to sell their souls to the devil.
By: Wendy Murphy, JD; Megan Mitchell, JD (expected 2013); Alexa Sardina, PhD (expected 2014)
Study Name and citation : Loftus, E. & Pickrell, J. E. (1995). The Formation of False Memories. Psychiatric Annals, 25(12), 720 – 725. (Commonly known as the “Lost in the Mall” study).
Theory Advanced by the Study: False childhood memories can be implanted into adults by repeatedly stating the false memory as true.
Conclusion: The study’s theory and methodology are not reliable under either Frye or Daubert standards….
For example, any attempt to use the Lost in the Mall study to prove or disprove that a person is telling the truth about sexual abuse should be unsuccessful simply because memories about getting lost in a mall have nothing to do with memories of being sexually or physically violated.
Put another way, the capacity to make a person falsely believe they were once lost in a mall does not “fit” and bears no relevance in a dispute over whether a person can be made to falsely believe they were sexually abused as a child….
While other studies come close to replicating the methods used in Lost in the Mall, the results themselves have never been replicated. This is important because replication of results is what makes the methodology and statistical significance of the original experiment reliable.3
Lost in the Mall fails the reliability test under this factor for two reasons. (1) It has not been repeated using the same methodology4 and (2) similar studies have obtained widely varied results….
The fact that an error rate was never calculated indicates an attempt to avoid publishing unwanted results.12 An attempt to account for this glaring anomaly is apparent because the author writes about “clarity ratings” as a seeming alternative to an error rate. This raises even greater concerns and adds nothing to an assessment of reliability because “clarity rating” is a meaningless term under Daubert….