Growing Not Dwindling: Worldwide Phenomenon of Dissociative Disorders, Disinformation About Dissociation Dr Joel Paris’s Notions About Dissociative Identity Disorder
April 4, 2013 Comments Off on Growing Not Dwindling: Worldwide Phenomenon of Dissociative Disorders, Disinformation About Dissociation Dr Joel Paris’s Notions About Dissociative Identity Disorder
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease & Volume 201, Number 4, April 2013 http://www.jonmd.com p. 353 – 358
Growing Not Dwindling: Worldwide Phenomenon of Dissociative Disorders
To the Editor:
In the December 2012 issue of the Journal, Joel Paris, MD, wrote an article about the current status of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the dissociative disorder field in general. He suggests that DID is merely a ‘‘fad’’ and that there is no credible evidence to connect traumatic experiences with the development of DID. We refute several of the claims made by Dr Paris.
Our biggest concern as non-North American researchers is that Dr Paris does not reference a single international study related to dissociative disorders and DID, despite the considerable and increasing empirical literature from around the world. His speculation that DID is not diagnosed outside clinics that specialize in treating dissociation is not consistent with current data. DID and dissociative disorders have been reliably found in general psychiatric hospitals; psychiatric emergency departments; and private practices in countries including England, the Netherlands, Turkey, Puerto Rico, Northern Ireland, Germany, Finland, China, and Australia, among many others….
Much of the international research, using sophisticated epidemiological and clinical research methods, has replicated dozens of times the finding that dissociative processes and disorders (including DID) can be reliably detected in a wide spectrum of different societies. Epidemiological general population studies indicate that 1.1% to 1.5% meet diagnostic criteria for DID; and 8.6% to 18.3%, for any DSM-IV dissociative disorder (Johnson et al., 2006; Sar et al., 2007a). The international literature on DID and dissociative disorders has been widely published in mainstream journals of psychiatry and psychopathology and is inconsistent with Dr Paris’s conclusions….
Dr Paris also opines that there is only a ‘‘weak link’’ between child abuse and psychopathology, quoting an article published 17 years ago. Current research illustrates a very different picture. Persons with early abusive experiences demonstrate increased illnesses (Green and Kimerling, 2004), impaired work functioning (Lee and Tolman, 2006), serious interpersonal difficulties (Van der Kolk and d’Andrea, 2010), and a high risk for traumatic revictimization (Rich et al., 2004). The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study, an American epidemiological study, has provided retrospective and prospective data from more than 17,000 individuals on the effects of traumatic experiences during the first 18 years of life.
In conclusion, Dr Paris’s assessment of the supposedly dwindling fad of DID and dissociative disorders is not in keeping with current peer-reviewed international research. The dissociative disorder field has been producing solid and consistent evidence that provides guidance to clinicians and researchers about the epidemiology, phenomenology, diagnosis, and treatment of DID (and closely related conditions).
Alfonso Marti´nez-Taboas, PhD Department of Psychology
Carlos Albizu University San Juan, Puerto Rico
Martin Dorahy, PhD Department of Psychology University of Canterbury
Christchurch, New Zealand
Vedat Sar, MD Department of Psychiatry Istanbul University Istanbul, Turkey
Warwick Middleton, MD Department of Psychiatry University of Queensland
St Lucia, Australia
Christa Kru¨ger, MD Department of Psychiatry University of Pretoria
Pretoria, South Africa
Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: April 2013 – Volume 201 – Issue 4 – p 353–354 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318288d27f
Letters to the Editor
Disinformation About Dissociation Dr Joel Paris’s Notions About Dissociative Identity Disorder
To the Editor:
We write to record our objections to both the form and the content of Dr Joel Paris’s recent article entitled The Rise and Fall of Dissociative Identity Disorder (Paris, 2012). His claim that dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a ‘‘medical fad’’ is simply wrong, and he provides no substantive evidence to support his claim. From the mistaken identification of Pierre Janet as a psychiatrist in the first line (Janet was the most famous psychologist of his day), it is replete with errors, false claims, and lack of scholarship and just plainly ignores the published literature. Dr Paris provided a highly biased article that is based on opinion rather than on science. His review of the literature is extremely selective. Of 48 references, Dr Paris cites exactly 7 peer-reviewed articles published from 2000 onward (7/48 references equals 14%) and only 8 peer-reviewed, data-driven articles from before 2000 (8/48 equals 16%). Rather than relying on the recent peer-reviewed, scientific literature, Paris relied almost entirely on the non-peer-reviewed books, including a popular press book written by a journalist whose methods and conclusions have been strongly challenged.
He claims that interest and research in DID have waned, yet he fails to cite the multitude of studies that have been conducted about it. In fact, Dalenberg et al. (2007) documented evidence of the exact opposite pattern described by Paris: ‘‘A search of the PILOTS database offered by the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for articles on dissociation reveals 64 studies in 1985-1989, 236 published in 1990-1994, 426 published in 1995-1999 and 477 in the last 5-year block (2000-2004)’’ (p. 401)….
In addition, he fails to cite a variety of neurobiological and psychophysiological studies of DID documenting similar brain morphology abnormalities in patients with DID to those of other traumatized patients (Reinders et al., 2006; Vermetten et al., 2006). Despite failing to review this and other relevant research, Dr Paris made the claim that ‘‘Neither the theory behind the diagnosis nor the methods of treatment are consistent with the current preference for biological theories’’ (p. 1078). Furthermore, he fails to cite any research that has been done by researchers outside North America. For example, Vedat Sar, MD, in Turkey has published more than 70 articles and chapters on dissociative disorders and trauma (http://vedatsar.com/ index_2.htm), but Dr Paris failed to mention a single one….
A recent review in Psychological Bulletin by 2012) found strong support for the etiological relationship of trauma and dissociation. These included several large meta-analyses, some of which focused on patients with DID. Dalenberg et al. (2012) found an effect size of r = 0.52 and 0.54 for the relationship between childhood physical abuse and sexual abuse, respectively, in studies that compared individuals with dissociative disorders with those without dissociative disorders. In addition, Dalenberg et al. (2012) tested eight different predictions of the trauma versus the fantasy (sociocognitive/iatrogenic) model of dissociation. On each, careful of reviews of the literature, including meta-analyses, on memory, suggestibility, and neurobiology, among others, Dalenberg et al. (2012) found minimal scientific evidence to support the fantasy model. Further, reviews have shown that there are no research studies in the literature in any population studied to support the iatrogenic/sociocognitive etiology of DID promulgated by Dr Paris (Brown et al., 1999; Loewenstein, 2007)….
Dr Paris’s article does not provide scholarly criticism based upon peer reviewed research, scientific data, or accurate discussion of the history of psychiatry. His point of view is incorrect and outmoded. It is the so-called false-memory, iatrogenesis model of the dissociative disorders that is the fallen fad, buried under the weight of rigorous data that contradict it. Dissociative disorders have not risen and fallen. These existed before the fields of psychiatry and psychology did….
Bethany Brand, PhD Department of Psychology Towson University, MD
Richard J. Loewenstein, MD The Trauma Disorders Program Sheppard Pratt Health System Baltimore, MD Department of Psychiatry University of Maryland School of Medicine Baltimore
David Spiegel, MD Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Stanford University School of Medicine CA
Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease: April 2013 – Volume 201 – Issue 4 – p 354–356 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318288d2ee Letters to the Editor
February 25, 2013 Comments Off on California statute of limitations bill, All of Me – Kim Noble and MPD
Beall Introduces Bill to Bring Justice for Victims of Child Sex Abuse January 25, 2013 SACRAMENTO
A proposal to eliminate the statute of limitations for victims of child molestation to file lawsuits against their abusers has been introduced by Sen. Jim Beall, D-San Jose.
Senate Bill 131 addresses the inability of victims to seek damages because of repressed memories that do not surface until after the deadline to file a lawsuit has passed. Currently, the law states that an action must be filed by the plaintiff’s 26th birthday or within three years of the date that the adult plaintiff reasonably discovers that the psychological trauma he or she is suffering from is linked to sexual abuse. Beall said the law needs to be updated to reflect recent medical findings.
“Well documented medical literature has been developed since the last time the statute of limitations for civil claims was last extended,” he said. “The medical evidence shows psychological injuries stemming from sexual abuse emerge later in life and well past the age of 26…. http://sd15.senate.ca.gov/news/2013-01-25-beall-introduces-bill-bring-justice-victims-child-sex-abuse
HATTIE the novel begins with the end—the end of a woman’s life. In a spare and powerful narrative—delivered in three parts “In The Meadow,” “By the Stream,” and “Through the Woods” —this soulful novel takes us on an intimate journey through the meaning of Hattie’s life and life in general. It delves fearlessly into the complexity of our human relationships, our yearning for the divine, and the ways in which these paths cross throughout our lives. http://annabozenabowen.com http://annabozenabowen.com/hattie-the-novel/
All Of Me: My incredible true story of how I learned to live with the many personalities sharing my body Kim Noble and Jeff Hudson Piatkus Publishing 2011 ISBN-10: 0749955902
ALL OF ME
Kim Noble is an accomplished artist and a mother of a 14-year-old girl. She is bubbly and vivacious. To meet her you wouldn’t think anything was wrong. There’s just one problem. To all extents and purposes, Kim Noble does not exist. . .
At some point before her third birthday, as a result of repeated and horrific abuse, Kim Noble’s mind shattered. Her body now plays host to many different personalities. Suffering from Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) her body is occupied by a little boy who only speaks Latin, a gay man and an anorexic teenager. Some age with her body; others are stuck in time. http://www.piatkusbooks.net/all-of-me/
Kim Noble is a woman who, from the age of 14 years, spent 20 years in and out of hospital until she made contact with Dr Valerie Sinason and Dr Rob Hale at the Tavistock and Portman Clinics. In 1995 she began therapy and was diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder (originally named multiple personality disorder). D.I.D is a creative way to cope with unbearable pain. The main personality splits into several parts with dissociative or amnesic barriers between them. It used to be a controversial disorder but Kim has had extensive tests over 2 years by leading psychology professor at UCL, John Morton, who has established there is no memory between the personalities and that she has the misfortune of representing the British gold standard over genuine dissociation.
Kim has 20 main personalities, many fragments and 14 of the main personalities are artists. Having no formal art training, 14 of the main alters became interested in painting in 2004 after spending a short time with an art therapist. These 14 artists each have their own distinctive style, colours and themes, ranging from solitary deserts, sea scenes and abstracts to collages and paintings with traumatic content. Many alters are unaware that they share a body with other artists. http://kimnoble.com/
Interview with Brian Moss: Qualities and Information Useful for a Therapist and a Client Working with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
February 16, 2013 Comments Off on Interview with Brian Moss: Qualities and Information Useful for a Therapist and a Client Working with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Interview with Brian Moss: Qualities and Information Useful for a Therapist and a Client Working with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
permission to post
Modified from version originally posted in the Survivorship Journal Vol. 18, Issue 2 December, 2012 at survivorship.org
TOLERANCE FOR AMBIGUITY
Integrating a trauma narrative, especially if it is the result of sophisticated mind control procedures, is a complex and lengthy process where subjective states (hypnosis, drugs) and manipulated states (electric shock, psychic-driving, sensory deprivation, sleep deprivation) are mixed with objective states (veridical memory of ritual/sexual abuse or any other experiences meant to terrorize.)
CAPACITY TO DISSOCIATE
There is a difference between “forgetting” and “forgetting that you forget”; one insulates us temporarily as we metabolize our experience while the other prevents us from fundamentally accessing our experience. The capacity to dissociate in a healthy sense allows us to live our lives in spite of what we know—to balance the terror of being alive with the wonder of being alive. There are so many ways to get derailed: cynicism and anger, despair and hopelessness, or the false relief of numbness.
TOLERANCE FOR ISOLATION
All of us, survivors and therapists alike, got to where we are in stages. Painful truths that do not correspond to what we have been told about the world require new understandings that only gradually come into focus. In sharing what we have learned and/or remembered, there is deep frustration that in telling our most urgent truths we are not believed.
AT LEAST ONE TRUE “INTIMATE”
Whether spouse, partner, mentor, friend, find someone that can handle the material and understand the larger and hidden truths of what you are learning. The reality behind DID is a “through the looking glass” experience and is a journey best not taken alone. Therapy is difficult when the client is lacking outside support or dealing with an unsympathetic spouse/partner. Clients that are still embedded in the deviant social networks responsible for their original abuse have an enormous challenge facing them.
A SUBSTANTIAL DEGREE OF DIFFERENTIATION
A significant moment in my early childhood occurred while I was watching the television adaptation of Orson Welles’ War of the Worlds. There is a scene in which the creatures have landed and are zapping everyone. A priest comes forth, holds up a bible and is incinerated on the spot. I remember thinking, “Are they allowed to do that?” Differentiation from family, religion, dominant paradigms of any kind including television, mainstream media, and society in general—gives us the ability to think independently and to tolerate the withdrawal of approval or ridicule that is often the reaction to doing so.
INTEREST IN CONTROVERSIAL/FORBIDDEN AREAS OF KNOWLEDGE
Many DIDs have teams of parts that are used to research psychic phenomena. These psychic skills are exploited in a variety of contexts including military and intelligence work. It was eye-opening for me to see the seriousness with which this research is pursued covertly while being overtly ridiculed in conventional academic settings.
ABILITY TO DISCERN DISINFORMATION
Quality disinformation must contain a high degree of truth or it will be rejected outright. The goal of disinformation is to present pieces of the truth in a way that leads to the wrong conclusions. The other purpose is obfuscation in general. There is an overwhelming amount of disinformation on the internet and in our media. Who would have guessed that when Orwell’s “Ministry of Truth” finally arrived we would embrace it as “Wikipedia”.
COURAGE TO FOLLOW THE CLIENT’S LEAD
Abandoning their clients’ experience in order to preserve their (the therapist’s) comfortable view of the world is the same dynamic survivors experience at a societal level. Survivors want—and need—to be believed. No-one is afraid of the dark itself, they are afraid of what might be in the dark. Survivors know what is in the dark. They want to tell their therapists; they want to leave the scenes behind; they want to end the dissociation. They want—and need—to know it is over. It is essential that therapists do not let them down. This takes courage as well as expertise.
APPRECIATION OF LIFE’S ABSURD MOMENTS IN ORDER TO DEFEND AGAINST CYNICISM AND THE NEED TO UNDERSTAND EVERYTHING
One of my teachers had a story that I heard him tell often. It was a true story he read in the newspaper about a man who had given up and climbed a bridge preparing to jump. A crowd formed in anticipation of the spectacle and the police were called who, in their best manner tried to negotiate with and talk the man down. Getting nowhere, running out of ideas and becoming increasingly frustrated, one of the officers pulled his gun and threatened to shoot the man unless he came down. The man climbed down. It is important to understand that not everything can be understood.
ABILITY TO PERSEVERE IN THE FACE OF SOCIETAL DENIAL
Judith Herman named it in Trauma and Recovery: “The study of psychological trauma has repeatedly led into realms of the unthinkable and foundered on fundamental questions of belief.” There will be polarization occurring in society as more and more information comes out and more survivors come forward. There will be attempts to discredit survivors and to misinform and censor content for those seeking information but to no avail. There are too many survivors and they will continue to speak their truth in an ever increasing chorus.
A BELIEF SYSTEM THAT ALLOWS FOR EXISTENCE OF THE SPIRITUAL
Most DID systems contain spiritual guides or transcendents capable of guiding the work of healing. DID survivors benefit from therapists who are comfortable with these realities. The transcendents, by their very nature, are beyond the reach of programming/conditioning and remain untouched by mind control techniques much as the Sun does not cease to exist simply because a cloud moves in front or the earth revolves.
BELIEF THAT LIFE HAS MEANING
In enduring or bearing witness to the desecration of every value the belief that life has meaning frames the ability to go forward rather than fall into despair. What I have noticed both for myself and the therapists I work with is that when we are willing to know, and not turn away from darkness, a corresponding light enters our life to help balance and navigate it.
UNDERSTANDING OF SYSTEMS THINKING
Systems theory addresses the whole, including the relationships of the parts of the whole to each other. It does not simply focus on the individual parts in isolation. The concept of wholeness, the integrative process, is the essence of all psychological growth—not just Dissociative Identity Disorder alone. The word “therapy” derives from the Greek word therapeia meaning “to heal”; the word “heal” from the Old English word hælan meaning “whole”. “Integrate” derives from Latin, integrare, to make whole, from integer, complete.
UNDERSTANDING OF UNCONSCIOUS PROCESS
In terms of unconscious process there is an important distinction to make between repression and dissociation. Traditionally, therapists received training in which experience not consciously available was seen to be a kind of primitive unconscious regulated largely by primary process thinking and regression. (Repressive model) Contrast this with concealed experience and memory systems (DID) that are coconscious, where parallel states are existing with a variety of levels of development, some more healthy or competent than the presenting personality! Knowing the subtleties of unconscious perception, and how they are named, informs the therapist and empowers the client.
UNDERSTANDING OF SYMBOLIC LANGUAGE
Consciously unacceptable material is camouflaged in symbolism. As it is metabolized, dissociated information will become more representational and less symbolic. When information is transmitted symbolically the degree of symbolism used will depend on the tolerance of the system for the material being depicted. When the information needs to be defended against, the defending alter will either not be present or will filter the 4 information symbolically. As integration takes place there is less need for symbolism and both dreams and artwork become more representational.
UNDERSTANDING OF THE TRUE ETIOLOGY OF DID
Complex DID systems are not simply a response to trauma and stress—even horrific trauma such as ritual abuse, though it does have a role to play. Nor is it caused iatrogenically by well-meaning therapists attempting to treat trauma survivors as Wikipedia would have us believe. DID is mind control, intentionally practiced and requiring a great deal of effort and conditioning over a period of many years. To develop an elaborate DID system is to endure an ongoing medical procedure throughout childhood, one that requires clinical settings with access to extensive equipment and pharmaceuticals.
At the turn of the century there were indeed cases of “split personality.” These cases were observed by Pierre Janet in Paris; Breuer and Freud in Vienna; F.W.H. Myers in London; and Morton Prince in Boston. These initial cases were found to be the result of trauma in childhood but rarely produced more than a few alter states and often just one. Childhood incest does not lead to elaborate DID systems.
Modern DID bears no resemblance to these early, primitive cases but is instead the outcome of a century of covert research on these dissociative states and their successful creation and exploitation.
This statement has caused the most discussion yet is critical in understanding the true causes of present-day Dissociative Identity Disorder. So what is Mind Control Programming? I use the concepts programming and mind control interchangeably. All DID systems are the result of mind control and programming techniques. I want to clarify this statement; it is very important and has serious implications. The mind does indeed dissociate naturally both in normative contexts (selective attention) and in response to trauma—but dissociative states do not self-organize into elaborate systems with the levels of complexity that we are seeing today—that is something that requires interference from without. Modern cases of DID demonstrate hierarchy and are structured to meet a variety of demands. This is never random, or entirely a response to trauma, though trauma is used to create and maintain the compartmentalization in DID. These parallel conscious states, each exhibiting their own conditioning, are what we call alters.
That DID is manufactured in its present form needs to be acknowledged in order to understand features of DID that would not otherwise make sense and also to account for the politics of this diagnosis with its troublesome implications regarding our world. Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), now known as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), is the result of a century of covert research on these naturally occurring capacities of the mind. This is where our field truly “leads into realms of the unthinkable and founders on fundamental questions of disbelief.”
Throughout history, exploitation and control of some members of society by others is a continual theme. This control can be subtle, as with the manipulation of peoples’ belief systems through propaganda and religious dogma, or more direct and heavy-handed as with threats of persecution or violence. One of the simplest means of control is to maintain the powerlessness that comes with basic poverty/indebtedness or the lack of access to quality education. A key dynamic with the more overt forms of control is that when people are oppressed—they resist. Advanced forms of control address this fundamental dynamic by developing forms of exploitation that remain largely outside of conscious awareness both for selected individuals (DID) and the larger society (control of the public is achieved through propaganda and the manufacture of consent, an increasingly serious threat with the concentration of media).
Mind control evolved from two main foundations:
1) The Soviet discovery of conditioned reflexes (Pavlov 1903) and continued research within the field of behavioral psychology.
2) Advances in understanding the creation of parallel dissociative states with independent memory systems and control mechanisms utilizing research in hypnosis and trauma-based splitting of conscious processes.
UNDERSTANDING THAT EFFORTS TO CREATE DID IN CHILDREN WERE NOT SIMPLY EXCESSES OF THE COLD WAR IN THE NAME OF NATIONAL SECURITY
Disturbing as it is, we must acknowledge the ongoing nature of these activities. Clients are sensitive to any backing away by the therapist and are reluctant to fully disclose when they fear they won’t be believed. Clearly, people who would torture children, for any perceived agenda, are sociopathic. What they are after is a type of power that is outside legal or ethical constraints and better described as organized crime, no matter the context in which it is framed.
UNDERSTANDING ISSUES RELATING TO ALTERS
Over-identifying with the innocent child alters and avoiding the mean and destructive ones maintains division and conflict within the system. Developing a fascination with certain alters, or with the process of switching itself, is another way to become triangulated into the system; there is no reason to encourage switching— most alter systems can be accessed while keeping a sense of co-consciousness with the normative section. DIDs can parallel process to an extraordinary degree and this ability can be utilized to integrate without losing stability.
AWARENESS OF BLENDING VS. SWITCHING
Many clients and therapists expect a more dramatic presentation (switching with lost time) and miss important system shifts because the client remains co-conscious. When an alter, or programming is behind, alongside or blended with the front system, the changing quality of consciousness may present more subtly. Most alter movement taking place in a therapist’s office (unless the client is severely destabilized) involves blending with no loss of time.
DISCERNMENT REGARDING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STABILITY AND INTEGRATION
The front/normative section is designed to be free from interference and highly functioning as long as the covert aspects of the system remain unknown and there is compliance with the demands of the programmers/handlers. Programming is designed to maintain stability through compartmentalization. Paradoxically, it is the more effective therapists, who begin to make inroads into the deeper structures, who find themselves inadvertently destabilizing their clients. This “success” can trigger programming. (Dissociated trauma scenes and conditioned self-destructive behavior.) Overt stability is not the same as integration.
UNDERSTANDING OF DEEPER STRUCTURES OF DID
While allowing for some variation, most programming follows standard protocols. The front/normative section is designed to be free from interference and highly functioning as long as the covert aspects of the system remain unknown and there is compliance with the demands of the programmers/handlers. Many therapists deal with leaking or triggered trauma scenes related to sexual abuse and ritual abuse without ever getting to the deeper structures and teams involved in covert activities or the programming responsible for it. The trauma scenes act like a mine field keeping these deeper structures and parts hidden and compartmentalized.
RECOGNITION OF THE DOUBLE-BIND IN MIND CONTROL
As with all double-binds the only way out is to acknowledge the bind and transcend it. There is no way to resolve the situation if it is accepted as presented. The basic feature of false choice programs is: “I stay safe and comply with programming/training or I resist and trigger trauma scenes.” It is not either/or; alters should be made aware that both sides of the dilemma are manipulated and all parts of self can come to the present and be free of the demands.
UNDERSTANDING THE NEED TO WORK “FROM THE OUTSIDE IN”
Trauma programming is layered. A good visual image to illustrate this concept is the children’s game of Mikado or “pick-up-sticks”—the outermost sticks must be removed before attempting to move underlying ones. When working to dismantle programming any interference encountered must be dealt with before proceeding. Not to do so is like pulling a stick from the middle of the pile and activating multiple layers of conditioned responses at once—something guaranteed to stop any further progress and destabilize the client.
UNDERSTANDING THAT EMOTIONAL CATHARSIS IS NOT NECESSARY FOR INITIAL MEMORY WORK
There are two basic forms of memory: explicit memory and implicit memory. Explicit memory is what most people are referring to when they talk about memory; it records consciously available information about past experiences. Implicit memory is information that is not consciously available and was encoded outside of conscious awareness. Abreaction and triggering can be understood in terms of implicit memory. The sense of self and self-control that accompanies explicit memory is lost when a trauma memory is an implicit recollection. The difference between these two forms of memory must be acknowledged to understand the basis of trauma programming.
AWARENESS OF POSSIBLE SURVIVOR CONTACT AND SABOTAGE BY HANDLERS
All survivors are monitored internally via programming that is designed to force compliance or initiate reporting to programmers/handlers in the event of non-compliance. Of greater concern and missed by many therapists is that survivors are also often contacted and sabotaged by the people in their present life—even survivors well along in their recovery; this includes people (often family in generational cults) known to the survivor as well as unknown handlers able to access alters outside the awareness of the normative personalities.
A CLOSING STATEMENT FROM BRIAN:
The chance to share this information with you is my pebble in the pond—maybe reaching you on the far shore. Don’t doubt that there are many survivors whose voices have been heard, and many therapists who know the truth about what is going on in the world; all of us working quietly (or out-loud) to make healing possible for each other and to create the world we know is possible.
Brian Moss, MA, MFT is a Clinical Fellow and Approved Supervisor of the American Association of Marriage & Family Therapy. He lives in the Seattle area and consults widely, specializing in working in partnership with DID clients and their therapists.
January 7, 2013 Comments Off on Epidemiology of Dissociative Disorders: An Overview
Epidemiology of Dissociative Disorders: An Overview
Vedat Sar – Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey 2011
General psychiatric assessment instruments do not cover DSM-IV dissociative disorders. Many large-scale epidemiological studies led to biased results due to this deficit in their methodology. Nevertheless, screening studies using diagnostic tools designed to assess dissociative disorders yielded lifetime prevalence rates around 10% in clinical populations and in the community. Special populations such as psychiatric emergency ward applicants, drug addicts, and women in prostitution demonstrated the highest rates. Data derived from epidemiological studies also support clinical findings about the relationship between childhood adverse experiences and dissociative disorders. Thus, dissociative disorders constitute a hidden and neglected public health problem. Better and early recognition of dissociative disorders would increase awareness about childhood traumata in the community and support prevention of them alongside their clinical consequences.
“Most of the published clinical case series are focused on chronic and complex forms of dissociative disorders.
Data collected in diverse geographic locations such as North America , Puerto Rico , Western Europe , Turkey , and Australia  underline the consistency in clinical symptoms of dissociative disorders. These clinical case series have also documented that dissociative patients report highest frequencies of childhood psychological trauma among all psychiatric disorders. Childhood sexual (57.1%–90.2%), emotional (57.1%), and physical (62.9%–82.4%) abuse and neglect (62.9%) are among them (2–6).”
“Several studies conducted on consecutive series of inpatients and outpatients in general psychiatric settings in diverse countries yielded
results depending on the hinterland of the particular institution (Table 1).
Two studies in North America demonstrated that 13.0–20.7 % of psychiatric inpatients had a dissociative disorder [22, 23]. Studies on dissociative disorders in Istanbul, Turkey, yielded a prevalence slightly above 10% among psychiatric inpatients and outpatients [8, 24, 25]. Although still considerable, these rates were lower in the Netherlands , Germany , and Switzerland  among inpatients, that is, between 4.3%–8.0%. A Finnish study  reported higher rates for psychiatric outpatients (14.0%) and inpatients (21.0%).
Emergency admissions of a university psychiatric clinic in Istanbul, Turkey yielded the highest rate in the country: 35.7% . In a study from Zurich, Switzerland, among severely impaired psychiatric outpatients, prevalence of all dissociative disorders were 25.0% . Two recent studies on inpatient and outpatient psychiatric units in North America reported higher rates than those of the previous studies [31, 32].”
Kim Noble – Mom with Over 20 Different Personalities on Anderson Cooper – Wednesday, January 2, 2013
January 2, 2013 Comments Off on Kim Noble – Mom with Over 20 Different Personalities on Anderson Cooper – Wednesday, January 2, 2013
Kim Noble – Mom with Over 20 Different Personalities on Anderson Cooper – Wednesday, January 2, 2013
DAYTIME EXCLUSIVE: Mom with Over 20 Different Personalities: A mom living with over 20 personalities, including a man, a teenage boy, and a bulimic, breaks her silence about her struggle. http://www.andersoncooper.com/episodes/carmen-electra-jorge-cruise-2013-resolution-solutions-best-3-moves-to-lose-your-belly-fat-for-good-exclusive-a-mom-with-over-20-personalities/
Kim Noble is a woman who, from the age of 14 years, spent 20 years in and out of hospital until she made contact with Dr Valerie Sinason and Dr Rob Hale at the Tavistock and Portman Clinics. In 1995 she began therapy and was diagnosed with Dissociative Identity Disorder (originally named multiple personality disorder). D.I.D is a creative way to cope with unbearable pain. The main personality splits into several parts with dissociative or amnesic barriers between them. It used to be a controversial disorder but Kim has had extensive tests over 2 years by leading psychology professor at UCL, John Morton, who has established there is no memory between the personalities. http://www.kimnoble.com/
December 3, 2012 Comments Off on Evaluation of the Evidence for the Trauma and Fantasy Models of Dissociation
Evaluation of the Evidence for the Trauma and Fantasy Models of Dissociation
“there is strong empirical support for the hypothesis that trauma causes dissociation, and that dissociation remains related to trauma history when fantasy proneness is controlled. We find little support for the hypothesis that the dissociation–trauma relationship is due to fantasy proneness or confabulated memories of trauma.”
Constance J. Dalenberg, Bethany L. Brand, David H. Gleaves, Martin J. Dorahy, Richard J. Loewenstein, Etzel Cardeña, Paul A. Frewen, Eve B. Carlson, and David Spiegel Psychological Bulletin Online First Publication, March 12, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027447
The relationship between a reported history of trauma and dissociative symptoms has been explained in 2 conflicting ways. Pathological dissociation has been conceptualized as a response to antecedent traumatic stress and/or severe psychological adversity. Others have proposed that dissociation makes individuals prone to fantasy, thereby engendering confabulated memories of trauma. We examine data related to a series of 8 contrasting predictions based on the trauma model and the fantasy model of dissociation. In keeping with the trauma model, the relationship between trauma and dissociation was consistent and moderate in strength, and remained significant when objective measures of trauma were used. Dissociation was temporally related to trauma and trauma treatment, and was predictive of trauma history when fantasy proneness was controlled. Dissociation was not reliably associated with suggestibility, nor was there evidence for the fantasy model prediction of greater inaccuracy of recovered memory. Instead, dissociation was positively related to a history of trauma memory recovery and negatively related to the more general measures of narrative cohesion. Research also supports the trauma theory of dissociation as a regulatory response to fear or other extreme emotion with measurable biological correlates. We conclude, on the basis of evidence related to these 8 predictions, that there is strong empirical support for the hypothesis that trauma causes dissociation, and that dissociation remains related to trauma history when fantasy proneness is controlled. We find little support for the hypothesis that the dissociation–trauma relationship is due to fantasy proneness or confabulated memories of trauma.
October 23, 2012 Comments Off on CKLN-FM Mind Control Series, How our brains work to erase bad memories
CKLN-FM Mind Control Series – Table of Contents
– Mind Control Survivors’ Testimony at the Human Radiation Experiments Hearings
– Interview with Valerie Wolf, Claudia Mullen and Chris deNicola Ebner
– Lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin – History of Mind Control
– Claudia Mullen – Presentation to the Believe the Children Conference, Interview
– Lecture by Therapist Valerie Wolf, M.S.W.: Assessment and Treatment of Survivors of Sadistic Abuse
– Interview with Valerie Wolf, M.S.W., therapist to trauma and mind control survivors
– Interview with Dr. Stephen Kent, sociologist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, on Cults and Ritual Abuse
– Making up for Lost Time Conference, Thunder Bay – Lynne Moss-Sharman Interview – ACHES-MC contact, ritual abuse victim
– Presentation by Professor Alan Scheflin – Risk Management in Dissociative Disorder and Trauma Therapy
– Ritual Abuse Panel — Toronto psychotherapist Gail Fisher-Taylor and Caryn Stardancer, California-based advocate for survivors and publisher of “Survivorship”.
How our brains work to erase bad memories – Got a bad memory? The brain has a unique way of helping you forget. By Meghan Holohan October 19, 2012
….Researchers found that we use two different ways — suppression or substitution — to avoid thinking of uncomfortable or unhappy memories.
“We assume that, in everyday life, healthy people will use a mixture of both mechanisms to prevent an unwanted memory from coming to mind,” says Roland Benoit, a scientist at the Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit at University of Cambridge, via email. “We did not know whether the processes of direct suppression and thought substitution can be isolated, and which, if any of them, would actually cause forgetting.”
Roland and his co-author, Michael Anderson, asked 36 adults to participate in a memory exercise where half suppressed memories and the other half substituted new memories. The researchers hoped to understand how we voluntarily forget and how it affects general memory. The subjects were tested during magnetic resonance imaging procedures, or MRIs, allowing the researchers to observe how the brain works during suppression and substitution.
While both processes cause forgetting, a different region of the brain controls each one. When people suppress memories, the dorsal prefrontal cortex inhibits activation in the hippocampus, which plays an important role in retaining memories.
“It thus effectively breaks the remembering process. This, in turn, disrupts the memory representations that would be necessary for recalling the unwanted memory later on,” Benoit explains….
“By just looking at how well people forgot memories, you couldn’t tell whether they had done direct suppression or thought substitution,” Benoit says. “These mechanisms are based on different brain systems that work in opposite fashion: One (direct suppression) by ‘slamming the mental break’ to stop the remembering process and the other (thought substitution) by steering the remembering process towards a substitute memory.”
Even though people exploit both to forget those nagging, unwanted memories, actively overlooking unpleasant events can negatively impact how we remember. But Benoit notes that learning how people deal with unwanted memories helps them understand how people with traumatic memories, such as PTSD sufferers, cope with remembering.
“It is perfectly natural for people, upon encountering an unwelcome reminder, to try to put the unpleasant reminding out of mind. We all have experienced this. Intuitively, it feels as though we solved this problem.”
August 18, 2012 Comments Off on Lawyer doesn’t remember stealing paintings – Dissociative Amnesia
Lawyer doesn’t remember stealing paintings Thu Aug 16, 2012
Michael Gerard Sullivan, 54, has pleaded guilty to stealing two paintings from the Katoomba Fine Art Gallery in December 2008….CCTV vision clearly shows Mr Sullivan stealing two James Willebrant paintings between courses.
During his court case Mr Sullivan’s lawyers tendered two psychiatric reports which concluded he had dissociative amnesia and his actions were totally out of character.
The court heard the disorder caused him to take on the identity of an art thief and not remember his actions
Judge Jennifer English accepted the diagnosis, saying Mr Sullivan had previously lived an exemplary life.
She did not record a conviction.
The Lawyer Who Forgot He Was a Thief
August 16, 2012 By Joe Palazzolo
Michael Gerard Sullivan, a lawyer in Sydney, Australia, was dining one night in 2008 at an art gallery restaurant when, according to the security cameras that recorded him, he excused himself between courses and stole two paintings worth $14,500.
Mr. Sullivan, who previously worked at some of the country’s top firms – including Freehills, Gadens and Mallesons (now King & Wood Mallesons after a big merger earlier this year) – pleaded guilty, with one caveat: He said he didn’t remember committing the crime….
The psychiatrists said Mr. Sullivan, who faced up to seven years in jail, was playing the character of an art thief. Australia’s ABC News reported Thursday that Judge English accepted Mr. Sullivan’s defense.
Judge English dismissed the charges but placed Mr. Sullivan on a two-year good behavior bond, saying he had lived an otherwise exemplary life, according to the ABC report.
The Cleveland Clinic, by the way, describes dissociative amnesia thus:
Dissociative amnesia occurs when a person blocks out certain information, usually associated with a stressful or traumatic event, leaving him or her unable to remember important personal information. With this disorder, the degree of memory loss goes beyond normal forgetfulness and includes gaps in memory for long periods of time or of memories involving the traumatic event.