July 24, 2014 Comments Off on Effects Of Child Abuse And Neglect On The Brain, Man Charged With Child Abuse in Kenya
Effects Of Child Abuse And Neglect On The Brain Wednesday, July 23, 2014
Hundreds of thousands of children suffer from neglect, abuse and trauma during their early years. Many of the psychological consequences are well known, but it’s becoming increasingly clear just how damaging they are to the developing brain.
Today in the final part of our series from WBUR called “Brain Matters: Reporting from the Frontlines of Neuroscience,” Iris Adler looks at a key issue in brain development: the biological consequences of early childhood neglect and trauma.
Man Charged in Oklahoma With Child Abuse in Kenya
OKLAHOMA CITY — Jul 22, 2014
By SEAN MURPHY Associated Press
An Oklahoma man has been charged with sexually abusing boys and girls while volunteering at an organization in Kenya that assists neglected children.
Matthew Lane Durham, of Edmond, is accused of engaging in sex acts with as many as ten children aged from 4 to 10 years while volunteering at Upendo Children’s Home in Nairobi from April to June 2014.
The complaint filed in the U.S. District Court of Western Oklahoma last week says the 19-year-old Durham has volunteered with Upendo since June 2012.
Durham wrote and signed a confession that an Upendo official provided to the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, according to an affidavit filed by FBI agent Scott Lobb.
In it, he admitted to sexually abusing boys and girls in a bathroom at the children’s home. At least one of the victims is HIV positive, according to the affidavit….
Durham’s attorney Stephen Jones said Tuesday the affidavit is riddled with inaccuracies and that his client is innocent….
Child abuse ‘has serious consequences for brain development’, Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children
June 22, 2014 Comments Off on Child abuse ‘has serious consequences for brain development’, Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children
Child abuse ‘has serious consequences for brain development’
Sunday 22 June 2014
A new study recently published in the American Journal of Psychiatry has found an association between child abuse and the reduction of gray matter in the brain that is responsible for information processing.
Child abuse, also referred to as child maltreatment, describes all forms of physical and emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and any other exploitation that harms the health, development, dignity or survival of a child under the age of 18 years.
The World Health Organization (WHO) state that worldwide, around 20% of women and 5-10% of men report being sexually abused as children, while 23% of individuals report being physically abused during childhood….
The studies included 56 children or adolescents and 275 adults with a history of childhood abuse, as well as 56 children and 306 adults who had not been exposed to childhood maltreatment.
Using a 3D meta-analytical neuroimaging technique created by Radua – called “signed differential mapping” – the team was able to determine the volumes of gray matter in each individual.
They found that the individuals who had been exposed to childhood maltreatment had much smaller volumes of gray matter in certain brain areas, compared with those who had no history of child abuse….
Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children
June 17, 2014 Tulane University
Children in homes affected by violence, suicide, or the incarceration of a family member have significantly shorter telomeres -— a cellular marker of aging — than those in stable households. The study suggests that the home environment is an important intervention target to reduce the biological impacts of adversity in the lives of young children.
Researchers discovered that children in homes affected by domestic violence, suicide or the incarceration of a family member have significantly shorter telomeres, which is a cellular marker of aging, than those in stable households. The findings are published online in the latest issue of the journal Pediatrics.
Telomeres are the caps at the end of chromosomes that keep them from shrinking when cells replicate. Shorter telomeres are linked to higher risks for heart disease, obesity, cognitive decline, diabetes, mental illness and poor health outcomes in adulthood. Researchers took genetic samples from 80 children ages 5 to 15 in New Orleans and interviewed parents about their home environments and exposures to adverse life events.
“Family-level stressors, such as witnessing a family member get hurt, created an environment that affected the DNA within the cells of the children,” said lead author Dr. Stacy Drury, director of the Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Laboratory at Tulane. “The greater the number of exposures these kids had in life, the shorter their telomeres were — and this was after controlling for many other factors, including socioeconomic status, maternal education, parental age and the child’s age.”
S. S. Drury, E. Mabile, Z. H. Brett, K. Esteves, E. Jones, E. A. Shirtcliff, K. P. Theall. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption. PEDIATRICS, 2014; 134 (1): e128 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3415
The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption
Stacy S. Drury, MD, PhDa,
Emily Mabile, BAb,
Zoë H. Brett, PhDa,
Kyle Esteves, BAa,
Edward Jones, BAa,
Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff, PhDc, and
Katherine P. Theall, PhDb
….RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (ß = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls.
CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children.
Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident, Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality
October 10, 2013 Comments Off on Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident, Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality
– Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality of Cingulate, Precuneus, Temporal Pole and Insula
– Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident: Police
– Elyria child daycare worker charged with rape
Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality of Cingulate, Precuneus, Temporal Pole and Insula
Martin H. Teichera, Carl M. Andersona, Kyoko Ohashia, Ann Polcaria
Biological Psychiatry 2 October 2013
Childhood abuse is a major risk factor for psychopathology. Previous studies have identified brain differences in maltreated individuals but have not focused on potential differences in network architecture….
Marked differences in centrality (connectedness, ‘importance’) were observed in a handful of cortical regions. Left anterior cingulate had the second highest number of connections (degree centrality) and was a component of the ‘rich club’ in the control network but ranked low in connectedness (106th of 112 nodes) in the network derived from maltreated-subjects (p<0.01). Conversely, right precuneus and right anterior insula ranked first and 15th in degree centrality in the maltreated network versus 90th (p=0.01) and 105th (p<0.03) in the control network.
Maltreatment was associated with decreased centrality in regions involved in emotional regulation and ability to accurately attribute thoughts or intentions to others and with enhanced centrality in regions involved in internal emotional perception, self-referential thinking and self-awareness. This may provide a potential mechanism for how maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology.
Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident: Police (UPDATED) 10/07/2013
She was trusted to take care of defenseless children, but now one Ohio daycare worker is accused of doing the unthinkable — and filming it.
Heather Koon, 25, faces two counts of rape after police say they found video on her laptop of her “engaging in sexual conduct with an unknown infant.” An investigation also revealed an additional victim, according to WOIO.
Police allegedly found the video on Koon’s laptop at the apartment where her boyfriend, James Osborne, lives. Osborne is a registered sex offender. Both Koon and Osborne were arrested Oct. 4 within hours of each other, and were held at Lorain County Jail….
Elyria child daycare worker charged with rape
Jason Nguyen Oct 7, 2013
LORAIN — Deputies say they have proof one woman raped two toddlers at a daycare center.
The Lorain County Sheriff’s Department has arrested 25-year-old Heather Koon for having sex with two infants at ABC KIDZ daycare in Elyria….
Deputies found a video of Koon raping the babies on a laptop after they checked up on her boyfriend, James Osborne. Osborne is a sexual offender and was listed under another address.
Deputies arrested Osborne and then took the laptop.
Koon is charged with two counts of rape….
ITCCS Finney released from jail, ex-Radio 1 DJ Dave Lee Travis charged, Trauma and child abuse effects
October 3, 2013 Comments Off on ITCCS Finney released from jail, ex-Radio 1 DJ Dave Lee Travis charged, Trauma and child abuse effects
– He’s Out! International intervention frees Canadian Prisoner of Conscience Steve Finney
– Political Persecution of Canadian activist Steve Finney in Ontario court to be investigated by International Human Rights Observers
– Dave Lee Travis Charged With Two More Offences
– Traumatic events do not occur at random
– Effects of child abuse can last a lifetime
He’s Out! International intervention frees Canadian Prisoner of Conscience Steve Finney
“Early morning call” to Ontario’s Attorney General spurred ITCCS leader’s release Posted on October 02, 2013 by itccs
Kitchener, Ontario: The courage and resolve of Steve Finney himself, and phone calls from the ITCCS and a United Nations non-governmental body to the Ontario government, stopped cold an attempt by local judges and police to silence Finney and his campaign to confront child trafficking in Kitchener, Ontario.
Finney was released this afternoon in a sudden about-face by local authorities less than two hours after Ontario Attorney General John Gerretsen spoke with two human rights officials who have monitored Finney’s unlawful arrest and imprisonment.
According to one of these officials, who is a legal advisor to the ITCCS in Brussels,
“We can’t disclose the conversation we had with the Attorney General, out of mutual agreement with Mr. Gerretsen. But I can tell you that we informed him that we were preparing a motion at the United Nations to censure his government for its treatment of Mr. Finney. We were also going to name Finney as a prisoner of conscience if he wasn’t released, since he was clearly incarcerated because of his political beliefs.”
Kitchener Judge Michael Cuthbertson had just yesterday told Steve Finney that he would not be released on bail unless he formally renounced his involvement with the ITCCS, and denied anyone connected to ITCCS the right to offer sureties for Finney. The Crown Counsel had also attacked ITCCS in the bail hearing and suggested that Finney’s wife Amy Smart could be arrested for posting ITCCS videos on youtube. “I feel fantastic” said Steve Finney in a brief telephone interview soon after his release.
Political Persecution of Canadian activist Steve Finney in Ontario court to be investigated by International Human Rights Observers
Finney may be named as a Prisoner of Conscience and Political Prisoner Posted on October 02, 2013 by itccs
Brussels: Steve Finney, the unlawfully jailed Canadian leader of the International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State (ITCCS), was told yesterday by a Kitchener, Ontario court judge that he won’t be released on bail unless he disassociates himself from the Tribunal.
Ontario Court of Justice magistrate Michael Cuthbertson informed Finney through Duty Counsel Dave Woodbeck that no-one associated with the ITCCS would be allowed to post bail for him, and neither should Finney himself remain active with the ITCCS if he wished to “avoid another thirty days in jail”.
Steve Finney still faces no charges after his sudden arrest Sunday morning, the day after he spoke on international radio about his work to expose child trafficking in Kitchener involving government and police officials. Finney has been severely beaten by Kitchener police, assaulted and denied any contact or communication with anyone while in prison.
In response to such flagrant political persecution, the ITCCS and its United Nations affiliates have dispatched two accredited human rights observers to Kitchener to attend the Wednesday, October 2 bail hearing of Steve Finney.
Dave Lee Travis Charged With Two More Offences The Huffington Post UK 01/10/2013
DJ Dave Lee Travis has been further charged with two offences of indecent assault on a woman aged over 16 between January 1 1992 and December 31 1993.
The 68-year-old, whose real name is David Patrick Griffin, has been accused of assaulting a woman aged over 16 between January 1 1992 and December 31 1993, Scotland Yard said.
Travis, of Mentmore, in Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire, has already appeared in court to face 12 counts, including indecent assault and sexual assault.
The ex-Radio 1 DJ was first charged on August 15 as part of Operation Yewtree, the police investigation prompted by the Jimmy Savile abuse scandal, but the accusations against Travis have no connection to the disgraced television presenter.
Traumatic events do not occur at random
30 September 2013
Dr. Katie McLaughlin is a clinical psychologist and Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Washington. She received her doctorate in Clinical Psychology and in Epidemiology and Public Health from Yale University in 2008. Her research seeks to identify psychological and neurobiological mechanisms linking child trauma exposure to the onset of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Today, Katie writes about what population-based data can tell us about trauma in U.S. children and adolescents….
We sought to understand how common traumatic experiences are in the lives of U.S. youths by conducting a study examining trauma exposure and PTSD in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally-representative sample of 6,483 adolescents aged 13-17. This study is the largest population-based study examining trauma exposure and PTSD in U.S. youths, and the findings reveal trauma and PTSD are significant public health problems in this population….
Trauma Exposure is Pervasive among U.S. Youths
A majority of U.S. youths have experienced a traumatic event by the time they reach adolescence. Sixty-two percent of teenagers have experienced at least one traumatic event in their lifetime, including interpersonal violence, serious injuries, natural disasters and death of a loved one, and 19 percent have experienced three or more such events. The prevalence of trauma exposure among children and adolescents is nearly as high as the prevalence in adults based on similar population-based studies.
Traumatic Events do not Occur at Random
Some types of trauma occur more frequently to younger children, including physical abuse by a caregiver, witnessing domestic violence, and kidnapping. Approximately half of all children who will experience these types of trauma in their lifetime have been exposed before the age of 8.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Volume 52, Issue 8 , Pages 815-830.e14, August 2013 Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a National Sample of Adolescents Katie A. McLaughlin, Ph.D., Karestan C. Koenen, Ph.D. ,Eric D. Hill, M.S.P.H., Maria Petukhova, Ph.D., Nancy A. Sampson, B.A., Alan M. Zaslavsky, Ph.D., Ronald C. Kessler, Ph.D.
Although exposure to potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) is common among youths in the United States, information on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) risk associated with PTEs is limited. We estimate lifetime prevalence of exposure to PTEs and PTSD, PTE-specific risk of PTSD, and associations of sociodemographics and temporally prior DSM-IV disorders with PTE exposure, PTSD given exposure, and PTSD recovery among U.S. adolescents.
Data were drawn from 6,483 adolescent–parent pairs in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a national survey of adolescents aged 13 through 17 years. Lifetime exposure to interpersonal violence, accidents/injuries, network/witnessing, and other PTEs was assessed along with DSM-IV PTSD and other distress, fear, behavior, and substance disorders.
A majority (61.8%) of adolescents experienced a lifetime PTE. Lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV PTSD was 4.7% and was significantly higher among females (7.3%) than among males (2.2%). Exposure to PTEs, particularly interpersonal violence, was highest among adolescents not living with both biological parents and with pre-existing behavior disorders. Conditional probability of PTSD was highest for PTEs involving interpersonal violence. Predictors of PTSD among PTE-exposed adolescents included female gender, prior PTE exposure, and pre-existing fear and distress disorders. One-third (33.0%) of adolescents with lifetime PTSD continued to meet criteria within 30 days of interview. Poverty, U.S. nativity, bipolar disorder, and PTE exposure occurring after the focal trauma predicted nonrecovery….
Effects of child abuse can last a lifetime: Watch the ‘still face’ experiment to see why
By Brigid Schulte, Published: September 16, 2013
In one of the most sobering findings, the report highlighted that advances in brain research now show that child abuse and neglect damages not only in the way a developing child’s brain functions, but changes the actual structure of the brain itself, in such a way that makes clear thinking, controlling emotions and impulses and forming healthy social relationships more difficult…..
Some infants, however, become so distressed that that they’re unable to console themselves. Tronick and other researchers have found that neglect leads to increases in the heart rate, a flush of the stress hormone cortisol and to cell death in key regions of the brain.
In recent studies, Tronick and colleagues in Milan, have found that four-month-old infants exposed to the still face will remember it two weeks later, rapidly showing physiological changes to negative responses that infants exposed to it for the first time do not….
In studies of infants at orphanages who are fed and clothed, but not held, talked to or played with have found that some neglected children, literally, fail to grow. “Some of them actually died,” he said….
The report found that one of the biggest risk factors for child abuse and neglect is if the parent him or herself was abused or neglected. So Tronick and others are working to train professionals and educate and treat parents in an effort to break the cycle. And, one hopes, put an end to the wrenching effects of The Still Face.