July 24, 2014 Comments Off on Effects Of Child Abuse And Neglect On The Brain, Man Charged With Child Abuse in Kenya
Effects Of Child Abuse And Neglect On The Brain Wednesday, July 23, 2014
Hundreds of thousands of children suffer from neglect, abuse and trauma during their early years. Many of the psychological consequences are well known, but it’s becoming increasingly clear just how damaging they are to the developing brain.
Today in the final part of our series from WBUR called “Brain Matters: Reporting from the Frontlines of Neuroscience,” Iris Adler looks at a key issue in brain development: the biological consequences of early childhood neglect and trauma.
Man Charged in Oklahoma With Child Abuse in Kenya
OKLAHOMA CITY — Jul 22, 2014
By SEAN MURPHY Associated Press
An Oklahoma man has been charged with sexually abusing boys and girls while volunteering at an organization in Kenya that assists neglected children.
Matthew Lane Durham, of Edmond, is accused of engaging in sex acts with as many as ten children aged from 4 to 10 years while volunteering at Upendo Children’s Home in Nairobi from April to June 2014.
The complaint filed in the U.S. District Court of Western Oklahoma last week says the 19-year-old Durham has volunteered with Upendo since June 2012.
Durham wrote and signed a confession that an Upendo official provided to the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi, according to an affidavit filed by FBI agent Scott Lobb.
In it, he admitted to sexually abusing boys and girls in a bathroom at the children’s home. At least one of the victims is HIV positive, according to the affidavit….
Durham’s attorney Stephen Jones said Tuesday the affidavit is riddled with inaccuracies and that his client is innocent….
Child abuse ‘has serious consequences for brain development’, Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children
June 22, 2014 Comments Off on Child abuse ‘has serious consequences for brain development’, Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children
Child abuse ‘has serious consequences for brain development’
Sunday 22 June 2014
A new study recently published in the American Journal of Psychiatry has found an association between child abuse and the reduction of gray matter in the brain that is responsible for information processing.
Child abuse, also referred to as child maltreatment, describes all forms of physical and emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, negligence and any other exploitation that harms the health, development, dignity or survival of a child under the age of 18 years.
The World Health Organization (WHO) state that worldwide, around 20% of women and 5-10% of men report being sexually abused as children, while 23% of individuals report being physically abused during childhood….
The studies included 56 children or adolescents and 275 adults with a history of childhood abuse, as well as 56 children and 306 adults who had not been exposed to childhood maltreatment.
Using a 3D meta-analytical neuroimaging technique created by Radua – called “signed differential mapping” – the team was able to determine the volumes of gray matter in each individual.
They found that the individuals who had been exposed to childhood maltreatment had much smaller volumes of gray matter in certain brain areas, compared with those who had no history of child abuse….
Family violence leaves genetic imprint on children
June 17, 2014 Tulane University
Children in homes affected by violence, suicide, or the incarceration of a family member have significantly shorter telomeres -— a cellular marker of aging — than those in stable households. The study suggests that the home environment is an important intervention target to reduce the biological impacts of adversity in the lives of young children.
Researchers discovered that children in homes affected by domestic violence, suicide or the incarceration of a family member have significantly shorter telomeres, which is a cellular marker of aging, than those in stable households. The findings are published online in the latest issue of the journal Pediatrics.
Telomeres are the caps at the end of chromosomes that keep them from shrinking when cells replicate. Shorter telomeres are linked to higher risks for heart disease, obesity, cognitive decline, diabetes, mental illness and poor health outcomes in adulthood. Researchers took genetic samples from 80 children ages 5 to 15 in New Orleans and interviewed parents about their home environments and exposures to adverse life events.
“Family-level stressors, such as witnessing a family member get hurt, created an environment that affected the DNA within the cells of the children,” said lead author Dr. Stacy Drury, director of the Behavioral and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Laboratory at Tulane. “The greater the number of exposures these kids had in life, the shorter their telomeres were — and this was after controlling for many other factors, including socioeconomic status, maternal education, parental age and the child’s age.”
S. S. Drury, E. Mabile, Z. H. Brett, K. Esteves, E. Jones, E. A. Shirtcliff, K. P. Theall. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption. PEDIATRICS, 2014; 134 (1): e128 DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-3415
The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption
Stacy S. Drury, MD, PhDa,
Emily Mabile, BAb,
Zoë H. Brett, PhDa,
Kyle Esteves, BAa,
Edward Jones, BAa,
Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff, PhDc, and
Katherine P. Theall, PhDb
….RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (ß = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls.
CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children.
Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident, Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality
October 10, 2013 Comments Off on Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident, Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality
– Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality of Cingulate, Precuneus, Temporal Pole and Insula
– Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident: Police
– Elyria child daycare worker charged with rape
Childhood Maltreatment: Altered Network Centrality of Cingulate, Precuneus, Temporal Pole and Insula
Martin H. Teichera, Carl M. Andersona, Kyoko Ohashia, Ann Polcaria
Biological Psychiatry 2 October 2013
Childhood abuse is a major risk factor for psychopathology. Previous studies have identified brain differences in maltreated individuals but have not focused on potential differences in network architecture….
Marked differences in centrality (connectedness, ‘importance’) were observed in a handful of cortical regions. Left anterior cingulate had the second highest number of connections (degree centrality) and was a component of the ‘rich club’ in the control network but ranked low in connectedness (106th of 112 nodes) in the network derived from maltreated-subjects (p<0.01). Conversely, right precuneus and right anterior insula ranked first and 15th in degree centrality in the maltreated network versus 90th (p=0.01) and 105th (p<0.03) in the control network.
Maltreatment was associated with decreased centrality in regions involved in emotional regulation and ability to accurately attribute thoughts or intentions to others and with enhanced centrality in regions involved in internal emotional perception, self-referential thinking and self-awareness. This may provide a potential mechanism for how maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology.
Heather Koon Raped Babies At Ohio Daycare, Filmed At Least One Incident: Police (UPDATED) 10/07/2013
She was trusted to take care of defenseless children, but now one Ohio daycare worker is accused of doing the unthinkable — and filming it.
Heather Koon, 25, faces two counts of rape after police say they found video on her laptop of her “engaging in sexual conduct with an unknown infant.” An investigation also revealed an additional victim, according to WOIO.
Police allegedly found the video on Koon’s laptop at the apartment where her boyfriend, James Osborne, lives. Osborne is a registered sex offender. Both Koon and Osborne were arrested Oct. 4 within hours of each other, and were held at Lorain County Jail….
Elyria child daycare worker charged with rape
Jason Nguyen Oct 7, 2013
LORAIN — Deputies say they have proof one woman raped two toddlers at a daycare center.
The Lorain County Sheriff’s Department has arrested 25-year-old Heather Koon for having sex with two infants at ABC KIDZ daycare in Elyria….
Deputies found a video of Koon raping the babies on a laptop after they checked up on her boyfriend, James Osborne. Osborne is a sexual offender and was listed under another address.
Deputies arrested Osborne and then took the laptop.
Koon is charged with two counts of rape….